Background: Causes and mechanisms underlying cancer cachexia are not fully understood, and currently, no therapeutic approaches are available to completely reverse the cachectic phenotype. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been extensively described as a key factor in skeletal muscle physiopathology, exerting opposite roles through different signalling pathways. Methods: We employed a three-dimensional ex vivo muscle engineered tissue (X-MET) to model cancer-associated cachexia and to study the effectiveness of selective inhibition of IL-6 transignalling in counteracting the cachectic phenotype. Conditioned medium (CM) derived from C26 adenocarcinoma cells was used as a source of soluble factors contributing to the establishment of cancer cachexia in the X-MET model. A dose of 1.2 ng/mL of glycoprotein-130 fused chimaera (gp130Fc) was added to cachectic culture medium to neutralize IL-6 transignalling. Results: C26-conditioned medium induced a cachectic-like phenotype in the X-MET, leading to a decline of muscle mass (−60%; P < 0.001), a reduction in myosin expression (−92.4%; P < 0.005) and a reduction of the contraction frequency spectrum (−94%). C26-conditioned medium contains elevated amounts of IL-6 (8.61 ± 4.09 pg/mL) and IL6R (56.85 ± 10.96 pg/mL). These released factors activated the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling in the C26_CM X-MET system (phosphorylated STAT3/TOTAL +54.6%; P < 0.005), which in turn promote an enhancement of Il-6 (+69.2%; P < 0.05) and Il6r (+43%; P < 0.05) gene expression, suggesting the induction of a feed-forward loop. The selective neutralization of IL-6 transignalling, by gp130Fc, in C26_CM X-MET prevented the hyperactivation of STAT3 (−55.8%; P < 0.005), countered the reduction of cross-sectional area (+28.2%; P < 0.05) and reduced the expression of proteolytic factors including muscle ring finger-1 (−88%; P < 0.005) and ATROGIN1 (−92%; P < 0.05), thus preserving the robustness and increasing the contractile force (+20%) of the three-dimensional muscle system. Interestingly, the selective inhibition of IL-6 transignalling modulated gene regulatory networks involved in myogenesis and apoptosis, normalizing the expression of pro-apoptotic miRNAs, including miR-31 (−53.2%; P < 0.05) and miR-34c (−65%; P < 0.005), and resulting in the reduction of apoptotic pathways highlighted by the sensible reduction of cleaved caspase 3 (−92.5%; P < 0.005) in gp130Fc-treated C26_CM X-MET. Conclusions: IL-6 transignalling appeared as a promising target to counter cancer cachexia-related alterations. The X-MET model has proven to be a reliable drug-screening tool to identify novel therapeutic approaches and to test them in preclinical studies, significantly reducing the use of animal models.

Modelling three-dimensional cancer-associated cachexia and therapy: the molecular basis and therapeutic potential of interleukin-6 transignalling blockade / Cosentino, M.; Forcina, L.; Zouhair, M.; Apa, L.; Genovese, D.; Boccia, C.; Rizzuto, E.; Musaro', Antonio. - In: JOURNAL OF CACHEXIA, SARCOPENIA AND MUSCLE. - ISSN 2190-5991. - (2023), pp. 1-19. [10.1002/jcsm.13329]

Modelling three-dimensional cancer-associated cachexia and therapy: the molecular basis and therapeutic potential of interleukin-6 transignalling blockade

Cosentino M.;Forcina L.;Zouhair M.;Apa L.;Genovese D.;Boccia C.;Rizzuto E.;Musarò Antonio
2023

Abstract

Background: Causes and mechanisms underlying cancer cachexia are not fully understood, and currently, no therapeutic approaches are available to completely reverse the cachectic phenotype. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been extensively described as a key factor in skeletal muscle physiopathology, exerting opposite roles through different signalling pathways. Methods: We employed a three-dimensional ex vivo muscle engineered tissue (X-MET) to model cancer-associated cachexia and to study the effectiveness of selective inhibition of IL-6 transignalling in counteracting the cachectic phenotype. Conditioned medium (CM) derived from C26 adenocarcinoma cells was used as a source of soluble factors contributing to the establishment of cancer cachexia in the X-MET model. A dose of 1.2 ng/mL of glycoprotein-130 fused chimaera (gp130Fc) was added to cachectic culture medium to neutralize IL-6 transignalling. Results: C26-conditioned medium induced a cachectic-like phenotype in the X-MET, leading to a decline of muscle mass (−60%; P < 0.001), a reduction in myosin expression (−92.4%; P < 0.005) and a reduction of the contraction frequency spectrum (−94%). C26-conditioned medium contains elevated amounts of IL-6 (8.61 ± 4.09 pg/mL) and IL6R (56.85 ± 10.96 pg/mL). These released factors activated the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling in the C26_CM X-MET system (phosphorylated STAT3/TOTAL +54.6%; P < 0.005), which in turn promote an enhancement of Il-6 (+69.2%; P < 0.05) and Il6r (+43%; P < 0.05) gene expression, suggesting the induction of a feed-forward loop. The selective neutralization of IL-6 transignalling, by gp130Fc, in C26_CM X-MET prevented the hyperactivation of STAT3 (−55.8%; P < 0.005), countered the reduction of cross-sectional area (+28.2%; P < 0.05) and reduced the expression of proteolytic factors including muscle ring finger-1 (−88%; P < 0.005) and ATROGIN1 (−92%; P < 0.05), thus preserving the robustness and increasing the contractile force (+20%) of the three-dimensional muscle system. Interestingly, the selective inhibition of IL-6 transignalling modulated gene regulatory networks involved in myogenesis and apoptosis, normalizing the expression of pro-apoptotic miRNAs, including miR-31 (−53.2%; P < 0.05) and miR-34c (−65%; P < 0.005), and resulting in the reduction of apoptotic pathways highlighted by the sensible reduction of cleaved caspase 3 (−92.5%; P < 0.005) in gp130Fc-treated C26_CM X-MET. Conclusions: IL-6 transignalling appeared as a promising target to counter cancer cachexia-related alterations. The X-MET model has proven to be a reliable drug-screening tool to identify novel therapeutic approaches and to test them in preclinical studies, significantly reducing the use of animal models.
2023
cancer cachexia; drug screening; IL-6 transignalling blockade; muscle wasting; three-dimensional skeletal muscle model
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Modelling three-dimensional cancer-associated cachexia and therapy: the molecular basis and therapeutic potential of interleukin-6 transignalling blockade / Cosentino, M.; Forcina, L.; Zouhair, M.; Apa, L.; Genovese, D.; Boccia, C.; Rizzuto, E.; Musaro', Antonio. - In: JOURNAL OF CACHEXIA, SARCOPENIA AND MUSCLE. - ISSN 2190-5991. - (2023), pp. 1-19. [10.1002/jcsm.13329]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1689660
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