Immunity and lipid metabolism are intermingled at several levels: both circulating lipoproteins and intracellular lipid metabolism can modulate immune cell functions, especially those of regulatory T cells. In this review, Pinzon Grimaldos et al. explore the available knowledge on the role of lipid metabolism, and cholesterol in particular, in shaping Treg expansion and function. This pathway may become especially relevant in the context of atherosclerotic disease.Metabolic inflammation, defined as a chronic low-grade inflammation, is implicated in numerous metabolic diseases. In recent years, the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) as key controllers of metabolic inflammation has emerged, but our comprehension on how different metabolic pathways influence Treg functions needs a deeper understanding. Here we focus on how circulating and intracellular lipid metabolism, in particular cholesterol metabolism, regulates Treg homeostasis, expansion, and functions. Cholesterol is carried through the bloodstream by circulating lipoproteins (chylomicrons, very low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins). Tregs are equipped with a wide array of metabolic sensors able to perceive and respond to changes in the lipid environment through the activation of different intracellular pathways thus conferring to these cells a crucial metabolic and functional plasticity. Nevertheless, altered cholesterol transport, as observed in genetic dyslipidemias and atherosclerosis, impairs Treg proliferation and function through defective cellular metabolism. The intracellular pathway devoted to the cholesterol synthesis is the mevalonate pathway and several studies have shown that this pathway is essential for Treg stability and suppressive activity. High cholesterol concentrations in the extracellular environment may induce massive accumulation of cholesterol inside the cell thus impairing nutrients sensors and inhibiting the mevalonate pathway. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of circulating and cellular cholesterol metabolism in the regulation of Treg metabolism and functions. In particular, we will discuss how different pathological conditions affecting cholesterol transport may affect cellular metabolism in Tregs.

The role of lipid metabolism in shaping the expansion and the function of regulatory T cells / Pinzon Grimaldos, Alessandra; Bini, Simone; Pacella, Ilenia; Rossi, Alessandra; Di Costanzo, Alessia; Minicocci, Ilenia; D'Erasmo, Laura; Arca, Marcello; Piconese, Silvia. - In: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY. - ISSN 0009-9104. - 208:2(2022), pp. 181-192. [10.1093/cei/uxab033]

The role of lipid metabolism in shaping the expansion and the function of regulatory T cells

Pinzon Grimaldos, Alessandra;Bini, Simone;Rossi, Alessandra;Di Costanzo, Alessia;Minicocci, Ilenia;D'Erasmo, Laura;Arca, Marcello;Piconese, Silvia
2022

Abstract

Immunity and lipid metabolism are intermingled at several levels: both circulating lipoproteins and intracellular lipid metabolism can modulate immune cell functions, especially those of regulatory T cells. In this review, Pinzon Grimaldos et al. explore the available knowledge on the role of lipid metabolism, and cholesterol in particular, in shaping Treg expansion and function. This pathway may become especially relevant in the context of atherosclerotic disease.Metabolic inflammation, defined as a chronic low-grade inflammation, is implicated in numerous metabolic diseases. In recent years, the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) as key controllers of metabolic inflammation has emerged, but our comprehension on how different metabolic pathways influence Treg functions needs a deeper understanding. Here we focus on how circulating and intracellular lipid metabolism, in particular cholesterol metabolism, regulates Treg homeostasis, expansion, and functions. Cholesterol is carried through the bloodstream by circulating lipoproteins (chylomicrons, very low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins). Tregs are equipped with a wide array of metabolic sensors able to perceive and respond to changes in the lipid environment through the activation of different intracellular pathways thus conferring to these cells a crucial metabolic and functional plasticity. Nevertheless, altered cholesterol transport, as observed in genetic dyslipidemias and atherosclerosis, impairs Treg proliferation and function through defective cellular metabolism. The intracellular pathway devoted to the cholesterol synthesis is the mevalonate pathway and several studies have shown that this pathway is essential for Treg stability and suppressive activity. High cholesterol concentrations in the extracellular environment may induce massive accumulation of cholesterol inside the cell thus impairing nutrients sensors and inhibiting the mevalonate pathway. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of circulating and cellular cholesterol metabolism in the regulation of Treg metabolism and functions. In particular, we will discuss how different pathological conditions affecting cholesterol transport may affect cellular metabolism in Tregs.
2022
Treg; atherosclerosis; cholesterol; dyslipidemia; lipoproteins
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
The role of lipid metabolism in shaping the expansion and the function of regulatory T cells / Pinzon Grimaldos, Alessandra; Bini, Simone; Pacella, Ilenia; Rossi, Alessandra; Di Costanzo, Alessia; Minicocci, Ilenia; D'Erasmo, Laura; Arca, Marcello; Piconese, Silvia. - In: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY. - ISSN 0009-9104. - 208:2(2022), pp. 181-192. [10.1093/cei/uxab033]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1689067
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