[1] The slip behavior of major faults depends largely on the frictional and hydrologic properties of fault gouge. We report on laboratory experiments designed to measure the strength, friction constitutive properties, and permeability of a suite of saturated clay-rich fault gouges, including: a 50:50% mixture of montmorillonite-quartz, powdered illite shale, and powdered chlorite schist. Friction measurements indicate that clay-rich gouges are consistently weak, with steady state coefficient of sliding friction of <0.35. The montmorillonite gouge (μ = 0.19-0.23) is consistently weaker than the illite and chlorite gouges (μ = 0.27-0.32). At effective normal stresses from 12 to 59 MPa, all gouges show velocity-strengthening frictional behavior in the sliding velocity range 0.5-300 μm/s. We suggest that the velocity- strengthening behavior we observe is related to saturation of real contact area, as documented by the friction parameter b, and is an inherent characteristic of noncohesive, unlithified clay-rich gouge. Permeability normal to the gouge layer measured before, during, and after shear ranges from 8.3 × 10 -21 m2 to 3.6 × 10-16 m2; permeability decreases dramatically with shearing, and to a lesser extent with increasing effective normal stress. The chlorite gouge is consistently more permeable than the montmorillonite and illite gouge and maintains a higher permeability after shearing. Permeability reduction via shear is pronounced at shear strains ≲5 and is smaller at higher strain, suggesting that shear-induced permeability reduction is linked to fabric development early in the deformation history. Our results imply that the potential for development of excess pore pressure in low-permeability fault gouge depends on both clay mineralogy and shear strain. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Frictional and hydrologic properties of clay-rich fault gouge / Ikari, M. J.; Saffer, D. M.; Marone, C. J.. - In: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH. - ISSN 2156-2202. - 114:5(2009), pp. 100-120. [10.1029/2008JB006089]

Frictional and hydrologic properties of clay-rich fault gouge

Marone C. J.
Membro del Collaboration Group
2009

Abstract

[1] The slip behavior of major faults depends largely on the frictional and hydrologic properties of fault gouge. We report on laboratory experiments designed to measure the strength, friction constitutive properties, and permeability of a suite of saturated clay-rich fault gouges, including: a 50:50% mixture of montmorillonite-quartz, powdered illite shale, and powdered chlorite schist. Friction measurements indicate that clay-rich gouges are consistently weak, with steady state coefficient of sliding friction of <0.35. The montmorillonite gouge (μ = 0.19-0.23) is consistently weaker than the illite and chlorite gouges (μ = 0.27-0.32). At effective normal stresses from 12 to 59 MPa, all gouges show velocity-strengthening frictional behavior in the sliding velocity range 0.5-300 μm/s. We suggest that the velocity- strengthening behavior we observe is related to saturation of real contact area, as documented by the friction parameter b, and is an inherent characteristic of noncohesive, unlithified clay-rich gouge. Permeability normal to the gouge layer measured before, during, and after shear ranges from 8.3 × 10 -21 m2 to 3.6 × 10-16 m2; permeability decreases dramatically with shearing, and to a lesser extent with increasing effective normal stress. The chlorite gouge is consistently more permeable than the montmorillonite and illite gouge and maintains a higher permeability after shearing. Permeability reduction via shear is pronounced at shear strains ≲5 and is smaller at higher strain, suggesting that shear-induced permeability reduction is linked to fabric development early in the deformation history. Our results imply that the potential for development of excess pore pressure in low-permeability fault gouge depends on both clay mineralogy and shear strain. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.
2009
friction, earthquakes
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Frictional and hydrologic properties of clay-rich fault gouge / Ikari, M. J.; Saffer, D. M.; Marone, C. J.. - In: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH. - ISSN 2156-2202. - 114:5(2009), pp. 100-120. [10.1029/2008JB006089]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1688181
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