Over the last decades, a central role for vitamin D in immune modulation has been well established. The active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, through the interaction with vitamin D receptor, exerts different activities on the innate and adaptive immune system, among which suppression of inflammation and promotion of tolerogenic responses. Vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to autoimmune disorders that commonly display significant differences between females and males due to genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. Notably, a number of studies recently showed a cross-talk between vitamin D and the sex hormone estrogen. Estrogen-mediated effects on immune response may favor a Th1 profile or a Th2 profile, depending on hormone concentration. Thus, estrogen-mediated effects appear to be variable on autoimmunity depending on its concentration but also on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the different autoimmune diseases (i.e., Th1- or Th2-mediated diseases). Notably, estrogen has been demonstrated to enhance vitamin D function favoring its accumulation, and increasing the expression of vitamin D receptor, thus resulting in a more potent anti-inflammatory response in females than males. On the other hand, vitamin D has been shown to downregulate in immune cells the expression of aromatase, which converts testosterone to estrogen, leading to a decrease in estrogen level. Overall, available data allow us to hypothesize a higher protective effect of vitamin D-based therapeutic approaches in women, at least in fertile age, than in men. Future studies are needed to expand current knowledge on the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D in a sex and gender perspective, paving the way to a more personalized therapeutic approach in autoimmune diseases.

The role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases: could sex make the difference? / Dupuis, M. L.; Pagano, M. T.; Pierdominici, M.; Ortona, E.. - In: BIOLOGY OF SEX DIFFERENCES. - ISSN 2042-6410. - 12:1(2021), p. 12. [10.1186/s13293-021-00358-3]

The role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases: could sex make the difference?

Pagano M. T.;Pierdominici M.;Ortona E.
2021

Abstract

Over the last decades, a central role for vitamin D in immune modulation has been well established. The active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, through the interaction with vitamin D receptor, exerts different activities on the innate and adaptive immune system, among which suppression of inflammation and promotion of tolerogenic responses. Vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to autoimmune disorders that commonly display significant differences between females and males due to genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. Notably, a number of studies recently showed a cross-talk between vitamin D and the sex hormone estrogen. Estrogen-mediated effects on immune response may favor a Th1 profile or a Th2 profile, depending on hormone concentration. Thus, estrogen-mediated effects appear to be variable on autoimmunity depending on its concentration but also on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the different autoimmune diseases (i.e., Th1- or Th2-mediated diseases). Notably, estrogen has been demonstrated to enhance vitamin D function favoring its accumulation, and increasing the expression of vitamin D receptor, thus resulting in a more potent anti-inflammatory response in females than males. On the other hand, vitamin D has been shown to downregulate in immune cells the expression of aromatase, which converts testosterone to estrogen, leading to a decrease in estrogen level. Overall, available data allow us to hypothesize a higher protective effect of vitamin D-based therapeutic approaches in women, at least in fertile age, than in men. Future studies are needed to expand current knowledge on the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D in a sex and gender perspective, paving the way to a more personalized therapeutic approach in autoimmune diseases.
2021
Autoimmunity; Estrogen; Gender; Multiple sclerosis; Rheumatoid arthritis; Sex; Sex hormones; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Vitamin D
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
The role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases: could sex make the difference? / Dupuis, M. L.; Pagano, M. T.; Pierdominici, M.; Ortona, E.. - In: BIOLOGY OF SEX DIFFERENCES. - ISSN 2042-6410. - 12:1(2021), p. 12. [10.1186/s13293-021-00358-3]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1686116
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