Given the key roles of the cerebellum in motor, cognitive, and affective operations and given the decline of brain functions with ageing, cerebellar circuitry is attracting the attention of the scientific community. The cerebellum plays a key role in timing aspects of both motor and cognitive operations, including for complex tasks such as spatial navigation. Anatomically, the cerebellum is connected with the basal ganglia via disynaptic loops, and it receives inputs from nearly every region in the cerebral cortex. The current leading hypothesis is that the cerebellum builds internal models and facilitates automatic behaviors through multiple interactions with the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and spinal cord. The cerebellum undergoes structural and functional changes with ageing, being involved in mobility frailty and related cognitive impairment as observed in the physio-cognitive decline syndrome (PCDS) affecting older, functionally-preserved adults who show slowness and/or weakness. Reductions in cerebellar volume accompany ageing and are at least correlated with cognitive decline. There is a strongly negative correlation between cerebellar volume and age in cross-sectional studies, often mirrored by a reduced performance in motor tasks. Still, predictive motor timing scores remain stable over various age groups despite marked cerebellar atrophy. The cerebello-frontal network could play a significant role in processing speed and impaired cerebellar function due to ageing might be compensated by increasing frontal activity to optimize processing speed in the elderly. For cognitive operations, decreased functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) is correlated with lower performances. Neuroimaging studies highlight that the cerebellum might be involved in the cognitive decline occurring in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), independently of contributions of the cerebral cortex. Grey matter volume loss in AD is distinct from that seen in normal ageing, occurring initially in cerebellar posterior lobe regions, and is associated with neuronal, synaptic and beta-amyloid neuropathology. Regarding depression, structural imaging studies have identified a relationship between depressive symptoms and cerebellar gray matter volume. In particular, major depressive disorder (MDD) and higher depressive symptom burden are associated with smaller gray matter volumes in the total cerebellum as well as the posterior cerebellum, vermis, and posterior Crus I. From the genetic/epigenetic standpoint, prominent DNA methylation changes in the cerebellum with ageing are both in the form of hypo- and hypermethylation, and the presumably increased/decreased expression of certain genes might impact on motor coordination. Training influences motor skills and lifelong practice might contribute to structural maintenance of the cerebellum in old age, reducing loss of grey matter volume and therefore contributing to the maintenance of cerebellar reserve. Non-invasive cerebellar stimulation techniques are increasingly being applied to enhance cerebellar functions related to motor, cognitive and affective operations. They might enhance cerebellar reserve in the elderly. In conclusion, macroscopic and microscopic changes occur in the cerebellum during the lifespan, with changes in structural and functional connectivity with both the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. With the ageing of the population and the impact of ageing on quality of life, the panel of experts considers that there is a huge need to clarify how the effects of ageing on the cerebellar circuitry modify specific motor, cognitive and affective operations both in normal subjects and in brain disorders such as AD or MDD, with the goal of preventing symptoms or improving the motor, cognitive and affective symptoms.

Consensus Paper: Cerebellum and Ageing / Arleo, Angelo; Bareš, Martin; Bernard, Jessica A; Bogoian, Hannah R; Bruchhage, Muriel M K; Bryant, Patrick; Carlson, Erik S; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chung, Chih-Ping; Dotson, Vonetta M; Filip, Pavel; Guell, Xavier; Habas, Christophe; Jacobs, Heidi I L; Kakei, Shinji; Lee, Tatia M C; Leggio, Maria; Misiura, Maria; Mitoma, Hiroshi; Olivito, Giusy; Ramanoël, Stephen; Rezaee, Zeynab; Samstag, Colby L; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Sekiyama, Kaoru; Wong, Clive H Y; Yamashita, Masatoshi; Manto, Mario. - In: THE CEREBELLUM. - ISSN 1473-4230. - (2024). [10.1007/s12311-023-01577-7]

Consensus Paper: Cerebellum and Ageing

Leggio, Maria;Olivito, Giusy;
2024

Abstract

Given the key roles of the cerebellum in motor, cognitive, and affective operations and given the decline of brain functions with ageing, cerebellar circuitry is attracting the attention of the scientific community. The cerebellum plays a key role in timing aspects of both motor and cognitive operations, including for complex tasks such as spatial navigation. Anatomically, the cerebellum is connected with the basal ganglia via disynaptic loops, and it receives inputs from nearly every region in the cerebral cortex. The current leading hypothesis is that the cerebellum builds internal models and facilitates automatic behaviors through multiple interactions with the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and spinal cord. The cerebellum undergoes structural and functional changes with ageing, being involved in mobility frailty and related cognitive impairment as observed in the physio-cognitive decline syndrome (PCDS) affecting older, functionally-preserved adults who show slowness and/or weakness. Reductions in cerebellar volume accompany ageing and are at least correlated with cognitive decline. There is a strongly negative correlation between cerebellar volume and age in cross-sectional studies, often mirrored by a reduced performance in motor tasks. Still, predictive motor timing scores remain stable over various age groups despite marked cerebellar atrophy. The cerebello-frontal network could play a significant role in processing speed and impaired cerebellar function due to ageing might be compensated by increasing frontal activity to optimize processing speed in the elderly. For cognitive operations, decreased functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) is correlated with lower performances. Neuroimaging studies highlight that the cerebellum might be involved in the cognitive decline occurring in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), independently of contributions of the cerebral cortex. Grey matter volume loss in AD is distinct from that seen in normal ageing, occurring initially in cerebellar posterior lobe regions, and is associated with neuronal, synaptic and beta-amyloid neuropathology. Regarding depression, structural imaging studies have identified a relationship between depressive symptoms and cerebellar gray matter volume. In particular, major depressive disorder (MDD) and higher depressive symptom burden are associated with smaller gray matter volumes in the total cerebellum as well as the posterior cerebellum, vermis, and posterior Crus I. From the genetic/epigenetic standpoint, prominent DNA methylation changes in the cerebellum with ageing are both in the form of hypo- and hypermethylation, and the presumably increased/decreased expression of certain genes might impact on motor coordination. Training influences motor skills and lifelong practice might contribute to structural maintenance of the cerebellum in old age, reducing loss of grey matter volume and therefore contributing to the maintenance of cerebellar reserve. Non-invasive cerebellar stimulation techniques are increasingly being applied to enhance cerebellar functions related to motor, cognitive and affective operations. They might enhance cerebellar reserve in the elderly. In conclusion, macroscopic and microscopic changes occur in the cerebellum during the lifespan, with changes in structural and functional connectivity with both the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. With the ageing of the population and the impact of ageing on quality of life, the panel of experts considers that there is a huge need to clarify how the effects of ageing on the cerebellar circuitry modify specific motor, cognitive and affective operations both in normal subjects and in brain disorders such as AD or MDD, with the goal of preventing symptoms or improving the motor, cognitive and affective symptoms.
2024
cerebellum; aging; motor; cognitive; affective; Alzheimer’s disease
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
Consensus Paper: Cerebellum and Ageing / Arleo, Angelo; Bareš, Martin; Bernard, Jessica A; Bogoian, Hannah R; Bruchhage, Muriel M K; Bryant, Patrick; Carlson, Erik S; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chung, Chih-Ping; Dotson, Vonetta M; Filip, Pavel; Guell, Xavier; Habas, Christophe; Jacobs, Heidi I L; Kakei, Shinji; Lee, Tatia M C; Leggio, Maria; Misiura, Maria; Mitoma, Hiroshi; Olivito, Giusy; Ramanoël, Stephen; Rezaee, Zeynab; Samstag, Colby L; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Sekiyama, Kaoru; Wong, Clive H Y; Yamashita, Masatoshi; Manto, Mario. - In: THE CEREBELLUM. - ISSN 1473-4230. - (2024). [10.1007/s12311-023-01577-7]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1685555
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