Background: It is well established that trigeminal neuralgia is more prevalent in females than in males. Neurovascular compression with morphological changes of the trigeminal root represents the most recognized etiological factor. However, other factors may play a role in the framework of a multi-hit model. The primary aim of this study was to investigate sex differences in radiological and clinical characteristics of trigeminal neuralgia to better understand the multifactorial origin of this peculiar neuropathic pain condition. Methods: In this cross-sectional study patients with a definite diagnosis of primary trigeminal neuralgia were consecutively enrolled. Each patient underwent 3T MRI with sequences dedicated to the study of neurovascular compression. Major morphological changes of the trigeminal root were quantitatively assessed. Clinical characteristics were systematically collected through a dedicated questionnaire. A logistic regression model was implemented to predict radiological and clinical characteristics based on sex. Results: A total of 114 patients with classical (87) or idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (27) were enrolled. Female sex was predictive for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Male sex was predictive, among the comorbidities and clinical characteristics, for hypertension, the involvement of the left side and the second trigeminal division, alone or with the ophthalmic division. Discussion: The preponderance of TN in the female sex and the association between idiopathic TN and the female sex suggest the role of additional etiological factors in the framework of a multi-hit model. The identification of clinical variables predicted by sex suggests the possibility that distinct phenotypes, with peculiar pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects, may occur in females and males.

Sex differences in trigeminal neuralgia: a focus on radiological and clinical characteristics / De Stefano, Gianfranco; Litewczuk, Daniel; Mollica, Cristina; Di Pietro, Giuseppe; Galosi, Eleonora; Leone, Caterina; Falco, Pietro; Tullo, Maria Giulia; Caramia, Francesca; Truini, Andrea; Di Stefano, Giulia. - In: NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES. - ISSN 1590-1874. - (2023). [10.1007/s10072-023-06923-5]

Sex differences in trigeminal neuralgia: a focus on radiological and clinical characteristics

De Stefano, Gianfranco
Primo
;
Litewczuk, Daniel
Secondo
;
Mollica, Cristina;Di Pietro, Giuseppe;Galosi, Eleonora;Leone, Caterina;Falco, Pietro;Tullo, Maria Giulia;Caramia, Francesca;Truini, Andrea
Penultimo
;
Di Stefano, Giulia
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Background: It is well established that trigeminal neuralgia is more prevalent in females than in males. Neurovascular compression with morphological changes of the trigeminal root represents the most recognized etiological factor. However, other factors may play a role in the framework of a multi-hit model. The primary aim of this study was to investigate sex differences in radiological and clinical characteristics of trigeminal neuralgia to better understand the multifactorial origin of this peculiar neuropathic pain condition. Methods: In this cross-sectional study patients with a definite diagnosis of primary trigeminal neuralgia were consecutively enrolled. Each patient underwent 3T MRI with sequences dedicated to the study of neurovascular compression. Major morphological changes of the trigeminal root were quantitatively assessed. Clinical characteristics were systematically collected through a dedicated questionnaire. A logistic regression model was implemented to predict radiological and clinical characteristics based on sex. Results: A total of 114 patients with classical (87) or idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (27) were enrolled. Female sex was predictive for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Male sex was predictive, among the comorbidities and clinical characteristics, for hypertension, the involvement of the left side and the second trigeminal division, alone or with the ophthalmic division. Discussion: The preponderance of TN in the female sex and the association between idiopathic TN and the female sex suggest the role of additional etiological factors in the framework of a multi-hit model. The identification of clinical variables predicted by sex suggests the possibility that distinct phenotypes, with peculiar pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects, may occur in females and males.
2023
Multi-hit model; Neurovascular conflict; Paroxysmal pain; Sex differences; Trigeminal neuralgia; Trigeminal root
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Sex differences in trigeminal neuralgia: a focus on radiological and clinical characteristics / De Stefano, Gianfranco; Litewczuk, Daniel; Mollica, Cristina; Di Pietro, Giuseppe; Galosi, Eleonora; Leone, Caterina; Falco, Pietro; Tullo, Maria Giulia; Caramia, Francesca; Truini, Andrea; Di Stefano, Giulia. - In: NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES. - ISSN 1590-1874. - (2023). [10.1007/s10072-023-06923-5]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1685027
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