Simple Summary Breast cancer represents the most frequent cancer in women in the world. The state of the axillary lymph node is considered an independent prognostic factor and is currently evaluated only with invasive methods. Deep learning approaches, especially the ones based on convolutional neural networks, offer a valid, non-invasive alternative, allowing extraction of large amounts of the quantitative data that are used to build predictive models. The aim of our work is to evaluate the influence of the peritumoral parenchyma through different bounding box techniques on the prediction of the axillary lymph node in breast cancer patients using a deep learning artificial intelligence approach. Background: The axillary lymph node status (ALNS) is one of the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer (BC) patients, and it is currently evaluated by invasive procedures. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), highlights the physiological and morphological characteristics of primary tumor tissue. Deep learning approaches (DL), such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), are able to autonomously learn the set of features directly from images for a specific task. Materials and Methods: A total of 155 malignant BC lesions evaluated via DCE-MRI were included in the study. For each patient's clinical data, the tumor histological and MRI characteristics and axillary lymph node status (ALNS) were assessed. LNS was considered to be the final label and dichotomized (LN+ (27 patients) vs. LN- (128 patients)). Based on the concept that peritumoral tissue contains valuable information about tumor aggressiveness, in this work, we analyze the contributions of six different tumor bounding options to predict the LNS using a CNN. These bounding boxes include a single fixed-size box (SFB), a single variable-size box (SVB), a single isotropic-size box (SIB), a single lesion variable-size box (SLVB), a single lesion isotropic-size box (SLIB), and a two-dimensional slice (2DS) option. According to the characteristics of the volumes considered as inputs, three different CNNs were investigated: the SFB-NET (for the SFB), the VB-NET (for the SVB, SIB, SLVB, and SLIB), and the 2DS-NET (for the 2DS). All the experiments were run in 10-fold cross-validation. The performance of each CNN was evaluated in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, the area under the ROC curve (AUC), and Cohen's kappa coefficient (K). Results: The best accuracy and AUC are obtained by the 2DS-NET (78.63% and 77.86%, respectively). The 2DS-NET also showed the highest specificity, whilst the highest sensibility was attained by the VB-NET based on the SVB and SIB as bounding options. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that a selective inclusion of the DCE-MRI's peritumoral tissue increases accuracy in the lymph node status prediction in BC patients using CNNs as a DL approach.

CNN-based approaches with different tumor bounding options for lymph node status prediction in breast DCE-MRI / Santucci, Domiziana; Faiella, Eliodoro; Gravina, Michela; Cordelli, Ermanno; de Felice, Carlo; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Iannello, Giulio; Sansone, Carlo; Soda, Paolo. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 14:19(2022). [10.3390/cancers14194574]

CNN-based approaches with different tumor bounding options for lymph node status prediction in breast DCE-MRI

de Felice, Carlo;
2022

Abstract

Simple Summary Breast cancer represents the most frequent cancer in women in the world. The state of the axillary lymph node is considered an independent prognostic factor and is currently evaluated only with invasive methods. Deep learning approaches, especially the ones based on convolutional neural networks, offer a valid, non-invasive alternative, allowing extraction of large amounts of the quantitative data that are used to build predictive models. The aim of our work is to evaluate the influence of the peritumoral parenchyma through different bounding box techniques on the prediction of the axillary lymph node in breast cancer patients using a deep learning artificial intelligence approach. Background: The axillary lymph node status (ALNS) is one of the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer (BC) patients, and it is currently evaluated by invasive procedures. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), highlights the physiological and morphological characteristics of primary tumor tissue. Deep learning approaches (DL), such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), are able to autonomously learn the set of features directly from images for a specific task. Materials and Methods: A total of 155 malignant BC lesions evaluated via DCE-MRI were included in the study. For each patient's clinical data, the tumor histological and MRI characteristics and axillary lymph node status (ALNS) were assessed. LNS was considered to be the final label and dichotomized (LN+ (27 patients) vs. LN- (128 patients)). Based on the concept that peritumoral tissue contains valuable information about tumor aggressiveness, in this work, we analyze the contributions of six different tumor bounding options to predict the LNS using a CNN. These bounding boxes include a single fixed-size box (SFB), a single variable-size box (SVB), a single isotropic-size box (SIB), a single lesion variable-size box (SLVB), a single lesion isotropic-size box (SLIB), and a two-dimensional slice (2DS) option. According to the characteristics of the volumes considered as inputs, three different CNNs were investigated: the SFB-NET (for the SFB), the VB-NET (for the SVB, SIB, SLVB, and SLIB), and the 2DS-NET (for the 2DS). All the experiments were run in 10-fold cross-validation. The performance of each CNN was evaluated in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, the area under the ROC curve (AUC), and Cohen's kappa coefficient (K). Results: The best accuracy and AUC are obtained by the 2DS-NET (78.63% and 77.86%, respectively). The 2DS-NET also showed the highest specificity, whilst the highest sensibility was attained by the VB-NET based on the SVB and SIB as bounding options. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that a selective inclusion of the DCE-MRI's peritumoral tissue increases accuracy in the lymph node status prediction in BC patients using CNNs as a DL approach.
2022
axillary lymph nodes status (ALNS); bounding box; breast cancer (BC); convolutional neural network (CNN); deep learning (DL)
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
CNN-based approaches with different tumor bounding options for lymph node status prediction in breast DCE-MRI / Santucci, Domiziana; Faiella, Eliodoro; Gravina, Michela; Cordelli, Ermanno; de Felice, Carlo; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Iannello, Giulio; Sansone, Carlo; Soda, Paolo. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 14:19(2022). [10.3390/cancers14194574]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1677881
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