Thyroid cancer is the most common (similar to 90%) type of endocrine-system tumor, accounting for 70% of the deaths from endocrine cancers. In the last years, the high-throughput genomics has been able to identify pathways/molecular targets involved in survival and tumor progression. Targeted therapy and immunotherapy individually have many limitations. Regarding the first one, although it greatly reduces the size of the cancer, clinical responses are generally transient and often lead to cancer relapse after initial treatment. For the second one, although it induces longer-lasting responses in cancer patients than targeted therapy, its response rate is lower. The individual limitations of these two different types of therapies can be overcome by combining them. Here, we discuss MAPK pathway inhibitors, i.e., BRAF and MEK inhibitors, combined with checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4. Several mutations make tumors resistant to treatments. Therefore, more studies are needed to investigate the patient's individual tumor mutation burden in order to overcome the problem of resistance to therapy and to develop new combination therapies.

Combination Strategies Involving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Tyrosine Kinase or BRAF Inhibitors in Aggressive Thyroid Cancer / Ragusa, Francesca; Martina Ferrari, Silvia; Elia, Giusy; Rosaria Paparo, Sabrina; Balestri, Eugenia; Botrini, Chiara; Patrizio, Armando; Mazzi, Valeria; Guglielmi, Giovanni; Foddis, Rudy; Spinelli, Claudio; Ulisse, Salvatore; Antonelli, Alessandro; Fallahi, Poupak. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 23:10(2022). [10.3390/ijms23105731]

Combination Strategies Involving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Tyrosine Kinase or BRAF Inhibitors in Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

Salvatore Ulisse;
2022

Abstract

Thyroid cancer is the most common (similar to 90%) type of endocrine-system tumor, accounting for 70% of the deaths from endocrine cancers. In the last years, the high-throughput genomics has been able to identify pathways/molecular targets involved in survival and tumor progression. Targeted therapy and immunotherapy individually have many limitations. Regarding the first one, although it greatly reduces the size of the cancer, clinical responses are generally transient and often lead to cancer relapse after initial treatment. For the second one, although it induces longer-lasting responses in cancer patients than targeted therapy, its response rate is lower. The individual limitations of these two different types of therapies can be overcome by combining them. Here, we discuss MAPK pathway inhibitors, i.e., BRAF and MEK inhibitors, combined with checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4. Several mutations make tumors resistant to treatments. Therefore, more studies are needed to investigate the patient's individual tumor mutation burden in order to overcome the problem of resistance to therapy and to develop new combination therapies.
2022
PD-1 inhibitors; PD-L1 inhibitors; immunotherapy; new checkpoint inhibitors; thyroid cancer; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; humans; immune checkpoint inhibitors; neoplasm recurrence, local; protein kinase inhibitors; protein-tyrosine kinases; proto-oncogene proteins B-raf; melanoma; thyroid neoplasms
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
Combination Strategies Involving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Tyrosine Kinase or BRAF Inhibitors in Aggressive Thyroid Cancer / Ragusa, Francesca; Martina Ferrari, Silvia; Elia, Giusy; Rosaria Paparo, Sabrina; Balestri, Eugenia; Botrini, Chiara; Patrizio, Armando; Mazzi, Valeria; Guglielmi, Giovanni; Foddis, Rudy; Spinelli, Claudio; Ulisse, Salvatore; Antonelli, Alessandro; Fallahi, Poupak. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 23:10(2022). [10.3390/ijms23105731]
File allegati a questo prodotto
File Dimensione Formato  
Ragusa_Combination-Strategies-Involving_2022.pdf

accesso aperto

Note: Main text
Tipologia: Versione editoriale (versione pubblicata con il layout dell'editore)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 371.45 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
371.45 kB Adobe PDF

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1675001
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 5
  • Scopus 8
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 9
social impact