An innovative cryo-mechano-hydrometallurgical process (named LIBAT) was demonstrated at pilot scale for the treatment of EOL lithium primary batteries with chemistry Li(0)-MnO2. The process allowed the recycling of steel scraps from external cases after cryomechanical dismantling, and the recovery of Mn and Li products after hydrometallurgical processing. During demonstration activities, about nine tons of batteries were treated in the cryomechanical section, and one ton of black mass was treated in the hydrometallurgical section for the recovery of Mn hydroxides and Li2CO3. The environmental impacts of the process were evaluated in comparison with an innovative pyrometallurgical approach allowing Li recovery, confirming the benefits of the proposed process due to a reduction in energy consumption. Process simulations were performed considering different mixture feeds (only Li primary, or mixture with Li-ion batteries) and process options (only the cryomechanical section of the integral process) to assess the lower limits of potentiality that would ensure economic sustainability. © 2023 by the authors.

Economic and environmental sustainability of an innovative cryo-mechano-hydrometallurgical process validated at pilot scale for the recycling of Li batteries / Pagnanelli, Francesca; Schiavi, Pier Giorgio; Altimari, Pietro; Beolchini, Francesca; Amato, Alessia; Coletta, Jacopo; Forte, Flavia; Moscardini, Emanuela; Toro, Luigi. - In: METALS. - ISSN 2075-4701. - 13:3(2023). [10.3390/met13030497]

Economic and environmental sustainability of an innovative cryo-mechano-hydrometallurgical process validated at pilot scale for the recycling of Li batteries

Pagnanelli, Francesca
;
Schiavi, Pier Giorgio;Altimari, Pietro;Beolchini, Francesca;Moscardini, Emanuela;Toro, Luigi
2023

Abstract

An innovative cryo-mechano-hydrometallurgical process (named LIBAT) was demonstrated at pilot scale for the treatment of EOL lithium primary batteries with chemistry Li(0)-MnO2. The process allowed the recycling of steel scraps from external cases after cryomechanical dismantling, and the recovery of Mn and Li products after hydrometallurgical processing. During demonstration activities, about nine tons of batteries were treated in the cryomechanical section, and one ton of black mass was treated in the hydrometallurgical section for the recovery of Mn hydroxides and Li2CO3. The environmental impacts of the process were evaluated in comparison with an innovative pyrometallurgical approach allowing Li recovery, confirming the benefits of the proposed process due to a reduction in energy consumption. Process simulations were performed considering different mixture feeds (only Li primary, or mixture with Li-ion batteries) and process options (only the cryomechanical section of the integral process) to assess the lower limits of potentiality that would ensure economic sustainability. © 2023 by the authors.
2023
Li primary batteries; recycling; hydrometallurgy; life cycle analysis; process analysis
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Economic and environmental sustainability of an innovative cryo-mechano-hydrometallurgical process validated at pilot scale for the recycling of Li batteries / Pagnanelli, Francesca; Schiavi, Pier Giorgio; Altimari, Pietro; Beolchini, Francesca; Amato, Alessia; Coletta, Jacopo; Forte, Flavia; Moscardini, Emanuela; Toro, Luigi. - In: METALS. - ISSN 2075-4701. - 13:3(2023). [10.3390/met13030497]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1673344
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