Background and Objectives: Verbal encouragement (VE) can be used to enhance performance in several sports, even though no studies have been conducted among swimmers and only a few effects have been reported in elite athletes. Besides influencing motor performance, VE is also known to enhance the physical load, thus potentially increasing the probability of developing fatigue. With this in mind, this study aimed to explore the effects of VE in swimmers in order to fill in the knowledge gap concerning the aquatic environment. Materials and Methods: Each athlete swam a maximal 200 m freestyle trial under two different conditions: one trial with VE and the other without VE. The two main outcome measures were: (1) performance velocity (m/s); and (2) muscle fatigue, investigated by means of surface electromyography. Sixty swimmers were recruited, aged 18.63 ± 3.46 years (median 18 years), 28 men (47%), and 32 women (53%), with 7.03 ± 3.9 years of experience. Results: With VE, performance significantly improved in the swim trial (p < 0.001, effect size (ES) −0.95, large). When breaking the results down into the first half (first (0–100 m) vs. the second half (100–200 m)), the ES was large in the first part (−1.11), indicating an improvement in performance. This worsened, however, in the second part of the trial (ES 0.63). In the multivariate analysis, years of experience were found to be a significant predictor of the change in overall performance (p = 0.011). There was a significant increase in muscle fatigue induced by VE, overall, and during the second half, but not during the first half of the trial. Conclusions: The present study indicates that VE during a middle-distance event (200 m) increases performance most in swimmers with little experience. However, it has a negative impact on fatigue.

The effect of verbal encouragement on performance and muscle fatigue in swimming / Puce, L.; Trompetto, C.; Curra, A.; Marinelli, L.; Mori, L.; Panasci, M.; Cotellessa, F.; Biz, C.; Bragazzi, N. L.; Ruggieri, P.. - In: MEDICINA. - ISSN 1010-660X. - 58:12(2022), pp. 1-10. [10.3390/medicina58121709]

The effect of verbal encouragement on performance and muscle fatigue in swimming

Curra A.;Panasci M.;Cotellessa F.;Ruggieri P.
2022

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Verbal encouragement (VE) can be used to enhance performance in several sports, even though no studies have been conducted among swimmers and only a few effects have been reported in elite athletes. Besides influencing motor performance, VE is also known to enhance the physical load, thus potentially increasing the probability of developing fatigue. With this in mind, this study aimed to explore the effects of VE in swimmers in order to fill in the knowledge gap concerning the aquatic environment. Materials and Methods: Each athlete swam a maximal 200 m freestyle trial under two different conditions: one trial with VE and the other without VE. The two main outcome measures were: (1) performance velocity (m/s); and (2) muscle fatigue, investigated by means of surface electromyography. Sixty swimmers were recruited, aged 18.63 ± 3.46 years (median 18 years), 28 men (47%), and 32 women (53%), with 7.03 ± 3.9 years of experience. Results: With VE, performance significantly improved in the swim trial (p < 0.001, effect size (ES) −0.95, large). When breaking the results down into the first half (first (0–100 m) vs. the second half (100–200 m)), the ES was large in the first part (−1.11), indicating an improvement in performance. This worsened, however, in the second part of the trial (ES 0.63). In the multivariate analysis, years of experience were found to be a significant predictor of the change in overall performance (p = 0.011). There was a significant increase in muscle fatigue induced by VE, overall, and during the second half, but not during the first half of the trial. Conclusions: The present study indicates that VE during a middle-distance event (200 m) increases performance most in swimmers with little experience. However, it has a negative impact on fatigue.
2022
elite athletes; motivation; performance optimization; physiological responses; surface electromyography; verbal feedback
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
The effect of verbal encouragement on performance and muscle fatigue in swimming / Puce, L.; Trompetto, C.; Curra, A.; Marinelli, L.; Mori, L.; Panasci, M.; Cotellessa, F.; Biz, C.; Bragazzi, N. L.; Ruggieri, P.. - In: MEDICINA. - ISSN 1010-660X. - 58:12(2022), pp. 1-10. [10.3390/medicina58121709]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1669182
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