Ischemia/reperfusion injury is a process associated with cardiologic interventions, such as percutaneous coronary angioplasty after an acute myocardial infarction. Blood flow restoration causes a quick burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which generates multiple organelle damage, leading to the activation of cell death pathways. Therefore, the intervention contributes to a greater necrotic zone, thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular complications. A major cardiovascular ROS source in this setting is the activation of multiple NADPH oxidases, which could result via the occupancy of type 1 angiotensin II receptors (AT1R); hence, the renin angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with the generation of ROS during reperfusion. In addition, ROS can promote the expression of NF-κΒ, a proinflammatory transcription factor. Recent studies have described an intracellular RAS pathway that is associated with increased intramitochondrial ROS through the action of isoform NOX4 of NADPH oxidase, thereby contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction. On the other hand, the angiotensin II/ angiotensin type 2 receptor (Ang II/AT2R) axis exerts its effects by counter-modulating the action of AT1R, by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and stimulating cardioprotective pathways such as akt. The aim of this review is to discuss the possible use of AT1R blockers to hamper both the Ang II/AT1R axis and the associated ROS burst. Moreover; we suggest that AT1R antagonist drugs should act synergistically with other cardioprotective agents, such as ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine, leading to an enhanced reduction in the reperfusion injury. This therapy is currently being tested in our laboratory and has shown promising outcomes in experimental studies.

Cardioprotective mechanisms against reperfusion injury in acute myocardial infarction: targeting angiotensin II receptors / Méndez-Valdés, Gabriel; Pérez-Carreño, Vicente; Bragato, Maria Chiara; Hundahl, Malthe; Chichiarelli, Silvia; Saso, Luciano; Rodrigo, Ramón. - In: BIOMEDICINES. - ISSN 2227-9059. - 11:1(2023), p. 17. [10.3390/biomedicines11010017]

Cardioprotective mechanisms against reperfusion injury in acute myocardial infarction: targeting angiotensin II receptors

Chichiarelli, Silvia;Saso, Luciano;
2023

Abstract

Ischemia/reperfusion injury is a process associated with cardiologic interventions, such as percutaneous coronary angioplasty after an acute myocardial infarction. Blood flow restoration causes a quick burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which generates multiple organelle damage, leading to the activation of cell death pathways. Therefore, the intervention contributes to a greater necrotic zone, thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular complications. A major cardiovascular ROS source in this setting is the activation of multiple NADPH oxidases, which could result via the occupancy of type 1 angiotensin II receptors (AT1R); hence, the renin angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with the generation of ROS during reperfusion. In addition, ROS can promote the expression of NF-κΒ, a proinflammatory transcription factor. Recent studies have described an intracellular RAS pathway that is associated with increased intramitochondrial ROS through the action of isoform NOX4 of NADPH oxidase, thereby contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction. On the other hand, the angiotensin II/ angiotensin type 2 receptor (Ang II/AT2R) axis exerts its effects by counter-modulating the action of AT1R, by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and stimulating cardioprotective pathways such as akt. The aim of this review is to discuss the possible use of AT1R blockers to hamper both the Ang II/AT1R axis and the associated ROS burst. Moreover; we suggest that AT1R antagonist drugs should act synergistically with other cardioprotective agents, such as ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine, leading to an enhanced reduction in the reperfusion injury. This therapy is currently being tested in our laboratory and has shown promising outcomes in experimental studies.
2023
reperfusion injury; oxidative stress; ARBs; AT1R; AT2R; angiotensin; myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury; intracellular renin angiotensin system
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
Cardioprotective mechanisms against reperfusion injury in acute myocardial infarction: targeting angiotensin II receptors / Méndez-Valdés, Gabriel; Pérez-Carreño, Vicente; Bragato, Maria Chiara; Hundahl, Malthe; Chichiarelli, Silvia; Saso, Luciano; Rodrigo, Ramón. - In: BIOMEDICINES. - ISSN 2227-9059. - 11:1(2023), p. 17. [10.3390/biomedicines11010017]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1666300
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