The skeletal muscle has a very remarkable ability to regenerate upon injury under physiological conditions; however, this regenerative capacity is strongly diminished in physio-pathological conditions, such as those present in diseased or aged muscles. Many muscular dystrophies (MDs) are characterized by aberrant inflammation due to the deregulation of both the lymphoid and myeloid cell populations and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Pathological inflammation is also observed in old muscles due to a systemic change in the immune system, known as “inflammaging”. Immunomodulation represents, therefore, a promising therapeutic opportunity for different skeletal muscle conditions. However, the use of immunomodulatory drugs in the clinics presents several caveats, including their low stability in vivo, the need for high doses to obtain therapeutically relevant effects, and the presence of strong side effects. Within this context, the emerging field of nanomedicine provides the powerful tools needed to control the immune response. Nano-scale materials are currently being explored as biocarriers to release immunomodulatory agents in the damaged tissues, allowing therapeutic doses with limited off-target effects. In addition, the intrinsic immunomodulatory properties of some nanomaterials offer further opportunities for intervention that still need to be systematically explored. Here we exhaustively review the state-of-the-art regarding the use of nano-sized materials to modulate the aberrant immune response that characterizes some physio-pathological muscle conditions, such as MDs or sarcopenia (the age-dependent loss of muscle mass). Based on our learnings from cancer and immune tolerance induction, we also discuss further opportunities, challenges, and limitations of the emerging field of nano-immunomodulation.

Nano-immunomodulation: a new strategy for skeletal muscle diseases and aging? / Millozzi, Francesco; Papait, Andrea; Bouche', Marina; Parolini, Ornella; Palacios, Daniela. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 24:2(2023), pp. 1-19. [10.3390/ijms24021175]

Nano-immunomodulation: a new strategy for skeletal muscle diseases and aging?

Francesco Millozzi;Marina Bouche;
2023

Abstract

The skeletal muscle has a very remarkable ability to regenerate upon injury under physiological conditions; however, this regenerative capacity is strongly diminished in physio-pathological conditions, such as those present in diseased or aged muscles. Many muscular dystrophies (MDs) are characterized by aberrant inflammation due to the deregulation of both the lymphoid and myeloid cell populations and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Pathological inflammation is also observed in old muscles due to a systemic change in the immune system, known as “inflammaging”. Immunomodulation represents, therefore, a promising therapeutic opportunity for different skeletal muscle conditions. However, the use of immunomodulatory drugs in the clinics presents several caveats, including their low stability in vivo, the need for high doses to obtain therapeutically relevant effects, and the presence of strong side effects. Within this context, the emerging field of nanomedicine provides the powerful tools needed to control the immune response. Nano-scale materials are currently being explored as biocarriers to release immunomodulatory agents in the damaged tissues, allowing therapeutic doses with limited off-target effects. In addition, the intrinsic immunomodulatory properties of some nanomaterials offer further opportunities for intervention that still need to be systematically explored. Here we exhaustively review the state-of-the-art regarding the use of nano-sized materials to modulate the aberrant immune response that characterizes some physio-pathological muscle conditions, such as MDs or sarcopenia (the age-dependent loss of muscle mass). Based on our learnings from cancer and immune tolerance induction, we also discuss further opportunities, challenges, and limitations of the emerging field of nano-immunomodulation.
2023
nanoparticles; gene editing; CRISPR/Cas9; duchenne muscular dystrophy
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
Nano-immunomodulation: a new strategy for skeletal muscle diseases and aging? / Millozzi, Francesco; Papait, Andrea; Bouche', Marina; Parolini, Ornella; Palacios, Daniela. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 24:2(2023), pp. 1-19. [10.3390/ijms24021175]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1664546
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