Cholesterol is the most considerable member of a family of polycyclic compounds understood as sterols, and represents an amphipathic molecule, such as phospholipids, with the polar hydroxyl group located in position 3 and the rest of the molecule is completely hydrophobic. In cells, it is usually present as free, unesterified cholesterol, or as esterified cholesterol, in which the hydroxyl group binds to a carboxylic acid and thus generates an apolar molecule. Filipin is a naturally fluorescent antibiotic that exerts a primary antifungal effect with low antibacterial activity, interfering with the sterol stabilization of the phospholipid layers and favoring membrane leakage. This polyene macrolide antibiotic does not bind to esterified sterols, but only to non-esterified cholesterol, and it is commonly used as a marker to label and quantify free cholesterol in cells and tissues. Several lines of evidence have indicated that filipin staining could be a good diagnostic tool for the cholesterol alterations present in neurodegenerative (e.g., Alzheimer’s Disease and Huntington Disease) and lysosomal storage diseases (e.g., Niemann Pick type C Disease and GM1 gangliosidosis). Here, we have discussed the uses and applications of this fluorescent molecule in lipid storage diseases and neurodegenerative disorders, exploring not only the diagnostic strength of filipin staining, but also its limitations, which over the years have led to the development of new diagnostic tools to combine with filipin approach.

The Antifungal Antibiotic Filipin as a Diagnostic Tool of Cholesterol Alterations in Lysosomal Storage Diseases and Neurodegenerative Disorders / Bruno, Francesco; Camuso, Serena; Capuozzo, Elisabetta; Canterini, Sonia. - In: ANTIBIOTICS. - ISSN 2079-6382. - 12:1(2023), p. 122. [10.3390/antibiotics12010122]

The Antifungal Antibiotic Filipin as a Diagnostic Tool of Cholesterol Alterations in Lysosomal Storage Diseases and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Serena Camuso;Elisabetta Capuozzo
;
Sonia Canterini
2023

Abstract

Cholesterol is the most considerable member of a family of polycyclic compounds understood as sterols, and represents an amphipathic molecule, such as phospholipids, with the polar hydroxyl group located in position 3 and the rest of the molecule is completely hydrophobic. In cells, it is usually present as free, unesterified cholesterol, or as esterified cholesterol, in which the hydroxyl group binds to a carboxylic acid and thus generates an apolar molecule. Filipin is a naturally fluorescent antibiotic that exerts a primary antifungal effect with low antibacterial activity, interfering with the sterol stabilization of the phospholipid layers and favoring membrane leakage. This polyene macrolide antibiotic does not bind to esterified sterols, but only to non-esterified cholesterol, and it is commonly used as a marker to label and quantify free cholesterol in cells and tissues. Several lines of evidence have indicated that filipin staining could be a good diagnostic tool for the cholesterol alterations present in neurodegenerative (e.g., Alzheimer’s Disease and Huntington Disease) and lysosomal storage diseases (e.g., Niemann Pick type C Disease and GM1 gangliosidosis). Here, we have discussed the uses and applications of this fluorescent molecule in lipid storage diseases and neurodegenerative disorders, exploring not only the diagnostic strength of filipin staining, but also its limitations, which over the years have led to the development of new diagnostic tools to combine with filipin approach.
2023
Filipin, antibiotic, cholesterol, NPC1
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
The Antifungal Antibiotic Filipin as a Diagnostic Tool of Cholesterol Alterations in Lysosomal Storage Diseases and Neurodegenerative Disorders / Bruno, Francesco; Camuso, Serena; Capuozzo, Elisabetta; Canterini, Sonia. - In: ANTIBIOTICS. - ISSN 2079-6382. - 12:1(2023), p. 122. [10.3390/antibiotics12010122]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1664460
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