Data on coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with syndrome X are still controversial. Further, noninvasive evaluation of epicardial and microvascular flow reserves in these patients has never been performed. In 17 patients with syndrome X and in 17 age- and gender-matched control subjects, CFR in the mid left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was evaluated by transthoracic color and pulse-Wave Doppler using a 7-mHz probe (Sequoia, Siemens). Peak diastolic LAD flow was calculated at rest and at peak adenosine (140 p,g/kg/min intravenously in 90 seconds). Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was performed at rest and during adenosine use by real-time cadence pulse sequencing and intravenous SonoVue (Bracco; 5 ml at 1 ml/min) and microvascular blood volume (A), velocity (beta), and flow (A x beta) by replenishing curves (y = A[1 - e(beta t)]). CFR was measured by Doppler echocardiography as an adenosine/rest velocity ratio and by NICE as a microvascular volume, velocity, and. flow adenosine/rest ratio. Compared with controls, patients with syndrome X demonstrated lower LAD CFR and velocity and flow microvascular flow reserves (p <0.01, <0.005, and <0.005, respectively). In patients with syndrome X, those with angina and ST-segment depression during adenosine testing had even lower LAD CFR and velocity and flow microvascular flow reserves compared with those with no symptoms (p <0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.005, respectively). LAD CFR demonstrated a significant linear correlation with velocity microvascular flow reserve (r = 0.92, p <0.0001) and flow microvascular flow reserve (r = 0.77, p <0.0001). In conclusion, CFR in the LAD, successfully evaluated by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography and MCE, is significantly decreased in patients with syndrome X and even more in those with angina pectoris and ST-segment depression during adenosine testing. Thus, noninvasive evaluation of CFR by echocardiography is feasible and provides information on the severity of microvascular impairment.

Non invasive evaluation of flow reserve in the left anterior descending coronary artery in patients with cardiac syndrome X

GALIUTO L;
2007

Abstract

Data on coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with syndrome X are still controversial. Further, noninvasive evaluation of epicardial and microvascular flow reserves in these patients has never been performed. In 17 patients with syndrome X and in 17 age- and gender-matched control subjects, CFR in the mid left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was evaluated by transthoracic color and pulse-Wave Doppler using a 7-mHz probe (Sequoia, Siemens). Peak diastolic LAD flow was calculated at rest and at peak adenosine (140 p,g/kg/min intravenously in 90 seconds). Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was performed at rest and during adenosine use by real-time cadence pulse sequencing and intravenous SonoVue (Bracco; 5 ml at 1 ml/min) and microvascular blood volume (A), velocity (beta), and flow (A x beta) by replenishing curves (y = A[1 - e(beta t)]). CFR was measured by Doppler echocardiography as an adenosine/rest velocity ratio and by NICE as a microvascular volume, velocity, and. flow adenosine/rest ratio. Compared with controls, patients with syndrome X demonstrated lower LAD CFR and velocity and flow microvascular flow reserves (p <0.01, <0.005, and <0.005, respectively). In patients with syndrome X, those with angina and ST-segment depression during adenosine testing had even lower LAD CFR and velocity and flow microvascular flow reserves compared with those with no symptoms (p <0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.005, respectively). LAD CFR demonstrated a significant linear correlation with velocity microvascular flow reserve (r = 0.92, p <0.0001) and flow microvascular flow reserve (r = 0.77, p <0.0001). In conclusion, CFR in the LAD, successfully evaluated by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography and MCE, is significantly decreased in patients with syndrome X and even more in those with angina pectoris and ST-segment depression during adenosine testing. Thus, noninvasive evaluation of CFR by echocardiography is feasible and provides information on the severity of microvascular impairment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1659363
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