The contribution of choroidal vasculature to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been long debated. The present narrative review aims to discuss the primary molecular and choroidal structural changes occurring with aging and AMD with a brief overview of the principal multimodal imaging modalities and techniques that enable the optimal in vivo visualization of choroidal modifications. The molecular aspects that target the choroid in AMD mainly involve human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression, complement dysregulation, leukocyte interaction at Bruch's membrane, and mast cell infiltration of the choroid. A mechanistic link between high-risk genetic loci for AMD and mast cell recruitment has also been recently demonstrated. Recent advances in multimodal imaging allow more detailed visualization of choroidal structure, identifying alterations that may expand our comprehension of aging and AMD development.
Fragiotta, Serena;Scuderi, Luca;Iodice, Clemente Maria;Rullo, Daria;Di Pippo, Mariachiara;Maugliani, Elisa;Abdolrahimzadeh, Solmaz
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