Introduction: We undertook a literature review of the use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices when utilized for heavy menstrual bleeding and/or dysmenorrhea. Methods: A narrative review of articles in the Scopus and Medline databases was conducted. Results: A number of options exist for the management of both abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and dysmenorrhea, and evidence is accumulating that the insertion of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) represents a useful option for their long-term treatment. The idea of using a progestogen released in utero was initially conceived to achieve long-term contraception, but it was quickly found that these systems could be utilized for a number of therapeutic applications. The first device to be made commercially available, Progestasert, was withdrawn from the market because, in the event of contraceptive failure, it caused a disproportionate percentage of extrauterine pregnancies. On the other hand, the LNG-IUS continues to be successfully utilized in its various variants, releasing 20, 13, or 8 mu g/day. These devices have a respective duration of action of 7 (possibly 8), 5, and 3 years, and there exist versions of frameless systems affixed to the myometrium of the uterine fundus. In the present review, following a brief description of the major causes of AUB and dysmenorrhea, the molecular bases for the use of the LNG-IUS are summarized. This is followed by a compendium of its use in AUB and dysmenorrhea, concluding that the insertion of the system improves the quality of life, reduces menstrual blood loss better than other medical therapies, and decreases the extent of dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain. In addition, there is no evidence of a significant difference in these outcomes when the use of the LNG-IUS was compared with improvements offered by endometrial ablation or hysterectomy. Possibly, the most important mechanism of action of the system consists of its ability to induce amenorrhea, which effectively eliminates heavy bleeding and dysmenorrhea. However, no method is ideal for every woman, and, in the case of the LNG-IUS, younger age and severe dysmenorrhea seem to be associated with a higher risk of discontinuation. Conclusion: The higher-dose LNG-IUS is a useful tool for HMB and dysmenorrhea in women of all ages. The low cost and ease of use make the LNG-IUS an attractive option, especially when contraception is also desired.

Utility of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding and dysmenorrhea. a narrative review / Bianchi, Paola; Guo, Sun-Wei; Habiba, Marwan; Benagiano, Giuseppe. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 2077-0383. - 11:19(2022), pp. 1-22. [10.3390/jcm11195836]

Utility of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding and dysmenorrhea. a narrative review

Paola BIANCHI
Conceptualization
;
Giuseppe Benagiano
Conceptualization
2022

Abstract

Introduction: We undertook a literature review of the use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices when utilized for heavy menstrual bleeding and/or dysmenorrhea. Methods: A narrative review of articles in the Scopus and Medline databases was conducted. Results: A number of options exist for the management of both abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and dysmenorrhea, and evidence is accumulating that the insertion of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) represents a useful option for their long-term treatment. The idea of using a progestogen released in utero was initially conceived to achieve long-term contraception, but it was quickly found that these systems could be utilized for a number of therapeutic applications. The first device to be made commercially available, Progestasert, was withdrawn from the market because, in the event of contraceptive failure, it caused a disproportionate percentage of extrauterine pregnancies. On the other hand, the LNG-IUS continues to be successfully utilized in its various variants, releasing 20, 13, or 8 mu g/day. These devices have a respective duration of action of 7 (possibly 8), 5, and 3 years, and there exist versions of frameless systems affixed to the myometrium of the uterine fundus. In the present review, following a brief description of the major causes of AUB and dysmenorrhea, the molecular bases for the use of the LNG-IUS are summarized. This is followed by a compendium of its use in AUB and dysmenorrhea, concluding that the insertion of the system improves the quality of life, reduces menstrual blood loss better than other medical therapies, and decreases the extent of dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain. In addition, there is no evidence of a significant difference in these outcomes when the use of the LNG-IUS was compared with improvements offered by endometrial ablation or hysterectomy. Possibly, the most important mechanism of action of the system consists of its ability to induce amenorrhea, which effectively eliminates heavy bleeding and dysmenorrhea. However, no method is ideal for every woman, and, in the case of the LNG-IUS, younger age and severe dysmenorrhea seem to be associated with a higher risk of discontinuation. Conclusion: The higher-dose LNG-IUS is a useful tool for HMB and dysmenorrhea in women of all ages. The low cost and ease of use make the LNG-IUS an attractive option, especially when contraception is also desired.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1656157
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