This work summarizes the research path done by Walter Arrighetti during his three years of Doctorate of Research in Electromagnetism at Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza,” Rome, under the guidance of Professor Giorgio Gerosa. This work was mainly motivated by the struggle to ﬁnd simpler and simpler models to introduce complex geometries (like fractal ones, for example, which are complicated but far from being ‘irregular’) in physical ﬁeld theories like the Classical Electrodynamics, and which stand at the base of most contemporary applied research activities: from antennas (of any sizes, bandwidths and operational distances) to waveguides & resonators (for devices ranging from IC motherboards , to high-speed ﬁbre channel links), to magnetic resonance (RMI) devices (for both diagnostic and research purposes), all the way up to particle accelerators. All of these models need not only a solid physical base, but also a speciﬁcally crafted ensemble of mathematical methods, in order to tackle with problems which “standard-geometry” models (both in the continuum and the discrete cases) are not best-suited for. During his previous years of study towards the Laurea degree in Electronic Engineering, the author used different approaches toward Fractal Electrodynamics, form purely-analytical, to computer-assisted numerical simulations of applied electromagnetic structures (both radiating and wave-guiding), down to algebraic-topological ones. The latter approaches, more often than not, proved to be the best way to start with, because the author found out that self-similarity (a property which many complicated geometries —even non-fractal ones— seem to, at least, tend to possess) can be easily interpreted as a topological symmetry, wonderfully described using “ad hoc” nontrivial algebraic languages. Whatever can be successfully described in the language of Algebra (either via numbers, symmetry groups, graphs, polynomials, etc.) is then always simpliﬁed (or “quotiented” — so to speak in a more strict mathematical language) and, when numerical computation takes the way towards the solution of a specific applied problem, those simplifications turn in handy to reduce the complexity of it. For example, the strict self-similarity possessed by some fractals (like those generated via an Iterated Function System — or IFS) allows to numerically store the geometrical data for a fractal object in a sequence of simpler and simpler data which are, for example, instantly recovered by a computer starting from the simplest data (like simplices, squares/cubes, circles/spheres and regular polygons/polytopes). For the same reason, all the physical properties that depend on the geometry (or the topology — i.e. basically the number of “holes” or inner connections) of the domain can be reduced, estimated or be even completely known a priori, even before a numerical simulation is performed. In this work, several of these methods (coming from apparently different branches of pure and applied Mathematics) are presented and ﬁnally joined with Electromagnetism equations to solve some more or less applied problems. Since many of the mathematical tools used to build the studied models and methods are advanced and generally not sufficiently known to experts in either such different ﬁelds, the ﬁrst two Chapters are devoted to a brief introduction of some purely mathematical topics. In that context, the author found that the best way to accomplish this was to re-write all those different results from different branches of both pure and applied Mathematics in a formalism as more solid and uniﬁed as possible, with continuous links back and forth to different topics (and to the next more applied Chapters). That approach is seldom found in most graduate-level texts. For example, very similar mathematical objects may be even called or classified in different ways, according to the different mathematical contexts they are introduced in, which is exactly the opposite philosophy which has guided underneath in writing these ﬁrst Chapters. On the other end, simpler and more trivial mathematical deﬁnitions, formalisms or electromagnetic problems, when not elsewhere referenced to, can be found in [9], Arrighetti W., Analisi di Strutture Elettromagnetiche Frattali, the author’s Laurea degree dissertation (currently only in Italian language). The most original part of the work is in the last three Chapters where —always using the same “language” and helping with cross-links, as well as to the Bibliography— methods are introduced and then applied to model some electromagnetic problems (previously either unsolved — or already-known, but here solved with a different, usually simpler, or at least more elegant approach).

Mathematical models and methods for Electromagnetism on fractal geometries / Arrighetti, Walter. - (2007 Sep 07).

### Mathematical models and methods for Electromagnetism on fractal geometries

#####
*ARRIGHETTI, Walter*

##### 2007

#### Abstract

This work summarizes the research path done by Walter Arrighetti during his three years of Doctorate of Research in Electromagnetism at Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza,” Rome, under the guidance of Professor Giorgio Gerosa. This work was mainly motivated by the struggle to ﬁnd simpler and simpler models to introduce complex geometries (like fractal ones, for example, which are complicated but far from being ‘irregular’) in physical ﬁeld theories like the Classical Electrodynamics, and which stand at the base of most contemporary applied research activities: from antennas (of any sizes, bandwidths and operational distances) to waveguides & resonators (for devices ranging from IC motherboards , to high-speed ﬁbre channel links), to magnetic resonance (RMI) devices (for both diagnostic and research purposes), all the way up to particle accelerators. All of these models need not only a solid physical base, but also a speciﬁcally crafted ensemble of mathematical methods, in order to tackle with problems which “standard-geometry” models (both in the continuum and the discrete cases) are not best-suited for. During his previous years of study towards the Laurea degree in Electronic Engineering, the author used different approaches toward Fractal Electrodynamics, form purely-analytical, to computer-assisted numerical simulations of applied electromagnetic structures (both radiating and wave-guiding), down to algebraic-topological ones. The latter approaches, more often than not, proved to be the best way to start with, because the author found out that self-similarity (a property which many complicated geometries —even non-fractal ones— seem to, at least, tend to possess) can be easily interpreted as a topological symmetry, wonderfully described using “ad hoc” nontrivial algebraic languages. Whatever can be successfully described in the language of Algebra (either via numbers, symmetry groups, graphs, polynomials, etc.) is then always simpliﬁed (or “quotiented” — so to speak in a more strict mathematical language) and, when numerical computation takes the way towards the solution of a specific applied problem, those simplifications turn in handy to reduce the complexity of it. For example, the strict self-similarity possessed by some fractals (like those generated via an Iterated Function System — or IFS) allows to numerically store the geometrical data for a fractal object in a sequence of simpler and simpler data which are, for example, instantly recovered by a computer starting from the simplest data (like simplices, squares/cubes, circles/spheres and regular polygons/polytopes). For the same reason, all the physical properties that depend on the geometry (or the topology — i.e. basically the number of “holes” or inner connections) of the domain can be reduced, estimated or be even completely known a priori, even before a numerical simulation is performed. In this work, several of these methods (coming from apparently different branches of pure and applied Mathematics) are presented and ﬁnally joined with Electromagnetism equations to solve some more or less applied problems. Since many of the mathematical tools used to build the studied models and methods are advanced and generally not sufficiently known to experts in either such different ﬁelds, the ﬁrst two Chapters are devoted to a brief introduction of some purely mathematical topics. In that context, the author found that the best way to accomplish this was to re-write all those different results from different branches of both pure and applied Mathematics in a formalism as more solid and uniﬁed as possible, with continuous links back and forth to different topics (and to the next more applied Chapters). That approach is seldom found in most graduate-level texts. For example, very similar mathematical objects may be even called or classified in different ways, according to the different mathematical contexts they are introduced in, which is exactly the opposite philosophy which has guided underneath in writing these ﬁrst Chapters. On the other end, simpler and more trivial mathematical deﬁnitions, formalisms or electromagnetic problems, when not elsewhere referenced to, can be found in [9], Arrighetti W., Analisi di Strutture Elettromagnetiche Frattali, the author’s Laurea degree dissertation (currently only in Italian language). The most original part of the work is in the last three Chapters where —always using the same “language” and helping with cross-links, as well as to the Bibliography— methods are introduced and then applied to model some electromagnetic problems (previously either unsolved — or already-known, but here solved with a different, usually simpler, or at least more elegant approach).I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.