Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) are widespread types of protein machinery, typically consisting of a histidine kinase membrane sensor and a cytoplasmic transcriptional regulator that can sense and respond to environmental signals. TCSs are responsible for modulating genes involved in a multitude of bacterial functions, including cell division, motility, differentiation, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and virulence. Pathogenic bacteria exploit the capabilities of TCSs to reprogram gene expression according to the different niches they encounter during host infection. This review focuses on the role of TCSs in regulating the virulence phenotype of Shigella, an intracellular pathogen responsible for severe human enteric syndrome. The pathogenicity of Shigella is the result of the complex action of a wide number of virulence determinants located on the chromosome and on a large virulence plasmid. In particular, we will discuss how five TCSs, EnvZ/OmpR, CpxA/CpxR, ArcB/ArcA, PhoQ/PhoP, and EvgS/EvgA, contribute to linking environmental stimuli to the expression of genes related to virulence and fitness within the host. Considering the relevance of TCSs in the expression of virulence in pathogenic bacteria, the identification of drugs that inhibit TCS function may represent a promising approach to combat bacterial infections.

Roles of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems in Shigella Virulence

Pasqua M.;Coluccia M.;Grossi M.;Prosseda G.;Colonna B.
2022

Abstract

Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) are widespread types of protein machinery, typically consisting of a histidine kinase membrane sensor and a cytoplasmic transcriptional regulator that can sense and respond to environmental signals. TCSs are responsible for modulating genes involved in a multitude of bacterial functions, including cell division, motility, differentiation, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and virulence. Pathogenic bacteria exploit the capabilities of TCSs to reprogram gene expression according to the different niches they encounter during host infection. This review focuses on the role of TCSs in regulating the virulence phenotype of Shigella, an intracellular pathogen responsible for severe human enteric syndrome. The pathogenicity of Shigella is the result of the complex action of a wide number of virulence determinants located on the chromosome and on a large virulence plasmid. In particular, we will discuss how five TCSs, EnvZ/OmpR, CpxA/CpxR, ArcB/ArcA, PhoQ/PhoP, and EvgS/EvgA, contribute to linking environmental stimuli to the expression of genes related to virulence and fitness within the host. Considering the relevance of TCSs in the expression of virulence in pathogenic bacteria, the identification of drugs that inhibit TCS function may represent a promising approach to combat bacterial infections.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1656075
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