In recent years, increased use of ammunition without lead and heavy metals was observed, leading to a growing interest in the detection of organic gunshot residues (OGSR) as evidence of firearms related crimes. The wide range of compounds belonging to the OGSR class hinders their mass spectrometric detection as different ionization techniques may be needed to obtain good results for all compounds. The purpose of this work was the development of a reliable analytical method by means of UHPLC-HRMS for the determination in oral fluid (OF) of the most common explosives and the most used stabilizers, arising from fire discharge and post-deflagration residues. For this purpose, SPE was used for OF clean-up before UHPLC-HRMS analysis. All target analytes were chromatographically separated by means of a Polar-C18 column. A chlorinated compound was added to the mobile phases in order to promote the formation of chloride adduct ions in the electrospray ion source operating in polarity switching to allow the best conditions for each analyte. The detection was conducted by means of a high-resolution mass spectrometer equipped with Orbitrap technology working in data dependent acquisition mode, in order to detect both the precursor ions and/or the most intense fragments for stabilizers. To verify its potential, the method was tested on real samples: a shooting session was performed in an open shooting range; the shooters fired from 2 to 20 rounds with a 9x21 caliber, thereafter OF was sampled. Samples were analyzed confirming that explosives may be detected in OF; the use of this matrix may be of great interest for investigative purposes as it is less affected by secondary transfer when compared to other commonly sampled matrices. The developed method could be a useful tool for law enforcement authorities for the detection of explosives in forensic potential scenarios, including biological matrices.

Oral fluid as a new investigative matrix for the determination of organic gunshot residue exposure / Pagano, Flavia; Vincenti, Flaminia; Montesano, Camilla; Fanti, Federico; Gregori, Adolfo; Curini, Roberta; Sergi, Manuel. - In: JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY B. - ISSN 1873-376X. - 1210:(2022), pp. 1-8. [10.1016/j.jchromb.2022.123477]

Oral fluid as a new investigative matrix for the determination of organic gunshot residue exposure

Pagano, Flavia
Primo
;
Vincenti, Flaminia;Montesano, Camilla
;
Curini, Roberta;Sergi, Manuel
2022

Abstract

In recent years, increased use of ammunition without lead and heavy metals was observed, leading to a growing interest in the detection of organic gunshot residues (OGSR) as evidence of firearms related crimes. The wide range of compounds belonging to the OGSR class hinders their mass spectrometric detection as different ionization techniques may be needed to obtain good results for all compounds. The purpose of this work was the development of a reliable analytical method by means of UHPLC-HRMS for the determination in oral fluid (OF) of the most common explosives and the most used stabilizers, arising from fire discharge and post-deflagration residues. For this purpose, SPE was used for OF clean-up before UHPLC-HRMS analysis. All target analytes were chromatographically separated by means of a Polar-C18 column. A chlorinated compound was added to the mobile phases in order to promote the formation of chloride adduct ions in the electrospray ion source operating in polarity switching to allow the best conditions for each analyte. The detection was conducted by means of a high-resolution mass spectrometer equipped with Orbitrap technology working in data dependent acquisition mode, in order to detect both the precursor ions and/or the most intense fragments for stabilizers. To verify its potential, the method was tested on real samples: a shooting session was performed in an open shooting range; the shooters fired from 2 to 20 rounds with a 9x21 caliber, thereafter OF was sampled. Samples were analyzed confirming that explosives may be detected in OF; the use of this matrix may be of great interest for investigative purposes as it is less affected by secondary transfer when compared to other commonly sampled matrices. The developed method could be a useful tool for law enforcement authorities for the detection of explosives in forensic potential scenarios, including biological matrices.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1655885
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