In Drosophila chromosomal rearrangements can be maintained and are associated with karyotypic variability among populations from different geographic localities. The abundance of variability in gene arrangements among chromosomal arms is even greater when comparing more distantly related species and the study of these chromosomal changes has provided insights into the evolutionary history of species in the genus. In addition, the sequencing of genomes of several Drosophila species has offered the opportunity to establish the global pattern of genomic evolution, at both genetic and chromosomal level. The combined approaches of comparative analysis of syntenic blocks and direct physical maps on polytene chromosomes have elucidated changes in the orientation of genomic sequences and the difference between heterochromatic and euchromatic regions. Unfortunately, the centromeric heterochromatic regions cannot be studied using the cytological maps of polytene chromosomes because they are underreplicated and therefore reside in the chromocenter. In Drosophila melanogaster, a cytological map of the heterochromatin has been elaborated using mitotic chromosomes from larval neuroblasts. In the current work, we have expanded on that mapping by producing cytological maps of the mitotic heterochromatin in an additional 10 sequenced Drosophila species. These maps highlight 2 apparently different paths, for the evolution of the pericentric heterochromatin between the subgenera Sophophora and Drosophila. One path leads toward a progressive complexity of the pericentric heterochromatin (Sophophora) and the other toward a progressive simplification (Drosophila). These maps are also useful for a better understanding how karyotypes have been altered by chromosome arm reshuffling during evolution.

Cytological heterogeneity of heterochromatin among 10 sequenced Drosophila species / Marchetti, Marcella; Piacentini, Lucia; Berloco, Maria Francesca; Casale, Assunta Maria; Cappucci, Ugo; Pimpinelli, Sergio; Fanti, Laura. - In: GENETICS. - ISSN 0016-6731. - 222:2(2022). [10.1093/genetics/iyac119]

Cytological heterogeneity of heterochromatin among 10 sequenced Drosophila species

Marcella, Marchetti;Piacentini, Lucia;Casale, Assunta Maria;Cappucci, Ugo;Pimpinelli, Sergio;Fanti, Laura
2022

Abstract

In Drosophila chromosomal rearrangements can be maintained and are associated with karyotypic variability among populations from different geographic localities. The abundance of variability in gene arrangements among chromosomal arms is even greater when comparing more distantly related species and the study of these chromosomal changes has provided insights into the evolutionary history of species in the genus. In addition, the sequencing of genomes of several Drosophila species has offered the opportunity to establish the global pattern of genomic evolution, at both genetic and chromosomal level. The combined approaches of comparative analysis of syntenic blocks and direct physical maps on polytene chromosomes have elucidated changes in the orientation of genomic sequences and the difference between heterochromatic and euchromatic regions. Unfortunately, the centromeric heterochromatic regions cannot be studied using the cytological maps of polytene chromosomes because they are underreplicated and therefore reside in the chromocenter. In Drosophila melanogaster, a cytological map of the heterochromatin has been elaborated using mitotic chromosomes from larval neuroblasts. In the current work, we have expanded on that mapping by producing cytological maps of the mitotic heterochromatin in an additional 10 sequenced Drosophila species. These maps highlight 2 apparently different paths, for the evolution of the pericentric heterochromatin between the subgenera Sophophora and Drosophila. One path leads toward a progressive complexity of the pericentric heterochromatin (Sophophora) and the other toward a progressive simplification (Drosophila). These maps are also useful for a better understanding how karyotypes have been altered by chromosome arm reshuffling during evolution.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1655762
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