Background: Dissociative disorders encompass loss of integration in essential functions such as memory, consciousness, perception, motor control, and identity. Nevertheless, neuroimag‐ ing studies, albeit scarce, have suggested the existence of particular brain activation patterns in pa‐ tients belonging to this diagnostic category. The aim of this review is to identify the main functional neuroimaging correlates of dissociative disorders. Methods: we searched the PubMed database to identify functional neuroimaging studies conducted on subjects with a diagnosis of a dissociative disorder, following the PRISMA guidelines. In the end, we included 13 studies in this systematic review, conducted on 51 patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID), 28 subjects affected by depersonalization disorder, 24 with dissociative amnesia, and 6 with other or not specified dissoci‐ ative disorders. Results: Prefrontal cortex dysfunction seems prominent. In addition, changes in the functional neural network of the caudate are related to alterations of identity state and maintenance of an altered mental status in DID. Another role in DID seems to be played by a dysfunction of the anterior cingulate gyrus. Other regions, including parietal, temporal, and insular cortices, and sub‐ cortical areas were reported to be dysfunctional in dissociative disorders. Conclusions: Prefrontal dysfunction is frequently reported in dissociative disorders. Functional changes in other cortical and subcortical areas can be correlated with these diagnoses. Further studies are needed to clarify the neurofunctional correlations of each dissociative disorder in affected patients, in order to iden‐ tify better tailored treatments.

Functional Neuroimaging in Dissociative Disorders. A Systematic Review

Martina Nicole Modesti;Ludovica Rapisarda;Gabriela Capriotti;Antonio Del Casale
2022

Abstract

Background: Dissociative disorders encompass loss of integration in essential functions such as memory, consciousness, perception, motor control, and identity. Nevertheless, neuroimag‐ ing studies, albeit scarce, have suggested the existence of particular brain activation patterns in pa‐ tients belonging to this diagnostic category. The aim of this review is to identify the main functional neuroimaging correlates of dissociative disorders. Methods: we searched the PubMed database to identify functional neuroimaging studies conducted on subjects with a diagnosis of a dissociative disorder, following the PRISMA guidelines. In the end, we included 13 studies in this systematic review, conducted on 51 patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID), 28 subjects affected by depersonalization disorder, 24 with dissociative amnesia, and 6 with other or not specified dissoci‐ ative disorders. Results: Prefrontal cortex dysfunction seems prominent. In addition, changes in the functional neural network of the caudate are related to alterations of identity state and maintenance of an altered mental status in DID. Another role in DID seems to be played by a dysfunction of the anterior cingulate gyrus. Other regions, including parietal, temporal, and insular cortices, and sub‐ cortical areas were reported to be dysfunctional in dissociative disorders. Conclusions: Prefrontal dysfunction is frequently reported in dissociative disorders. Functional changes in other cortical and subcortical areas can be correlated with these diagnoses. Further studies are needed to clarify the neurofunctional correlations of each dissociative disorder in affected patients, in order to iden‐ tify better tailored treatments.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1654227
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