Exposure to potentially toxic trace elements (PTTEs) in inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiorespiratory diseases. Therefore, in multi-source polluted urban contexts, a spatially-resolved evaluation of health risks associated with exposure to PTTEs in PM is essential to identify critical risk areas. In this study, a very-low volume device for high spatial resolution sampling and analysis of PM10 was employed in Terni (Central Italy) in a wide and dense network (23 sampling sites, about 1 km between each other) during a 15-month monitoring campaign. The soluble and insoluble fraction of 33 elements in PM10 was analysed through a chemical fractionation procedure that increased the selectivity of the elements as source tracers. Total carcinogenic risk (CR) and non-carcinogenic risk (NCR) for adults and children due to concentrations of PTTEs in PM10 were calculated and quantitative source-specific risk apportionment was carried out by applying Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to the spatially-resolved concentrations of the chemically fractionated elements. PMF analysis identified 5 factors: steel plant, biomass burning, brake dust, soil dust and road dust. Steel plant showed the greatest risk contribution. Total CR and NCR, and source-specific risk contributions at the 23 sites were interpolated using the ordinary kriging (OK) method and mapped to geo-reference the health risks of the identified sources in the whole study area. This also allowed risk estimation in areas not directly measured and the assessment of the risk contribution of individual sources at each point of the study area. This innovative experimental approach is an effective tool to localize the health risks of spatially disaggregated sources of PTTEs and it may allow for better planning of control strategies and mitigation measures to reduce airborne pollutant concentrations in urban settings polluted by multiple sources.

Innovative experimental approach for spatial mapping of source-specific risk contributions of potentially toxic trace elements in PM10

Massimi, Lorenzo
Primo
;
Pietrantonio, Eva
Secondo
;
Astolfi, Maria Luisa;Canepari, Silvia
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Exposure to potentially toxic trace elements (PTTEs) in inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiorespiratory diseases. Therefore, in multi-source polluted urban contexts, a spatially-resolved evaluation of health risks associated with exposure to PTTEs in PM is essential to identify critical risk areas. In this study, a very-low volume device for high spatial resolution sampling and analysis of PM10 was employed in Terni (Central Italy) in a wide and dense network (23 sampling sites, about 1 km between each other) during a 15-month monitoring campaign. The soluble and insoluble fraction of 33 elements in PM10 was analysed through a chemical fractionation procedure that increased the selectivity of the elements as source tracers. Total carcinogenic risk (CR) and non-carcinogenic risk (NCR) for adults and children due to concentrations of PTTEs in PM10 were calculated and quantitative source-specific risk apportionment was carried out by applying Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to the spatially-resolved concentrations of the chemically fractionated elements. PMF analysis identified 5 factors: steel plant, biomass burning, brake dust, soil dust and road dust. Steel plant showed the greatest risk contribution. Total CR and NCR, and source-specific risk contributions at the 23 sites were interpolated using the ordinary kriging (OK) method and mapped to geo-reference the health risks of the identified sources in the whole study area. This also allowed risk estimation in areas not directly measured and the assessment of the risk contribution of individual sources at each point of the study area. This innovative experimental approach is an effective tool to localize the health risks of spatially disaggregated sources of PTTEs and it may allow for better planning of control strategies and mitigation measures to reduce airborne pollutant concentrations in urban settings polluted by multiple sources.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/1653571
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