Platelets are the "guardians" of the blood circulatory system. At sites of vessel injury, they ensure hemostasis and promote immunity and vessel repair. However, their uncontrolled activation is one of the main drivers of thrombosis. To keep circulating platelets in a quiescent state, the endothelium releases platelet antagonists including nitric oxide (NO) that acts by stimulating the intracellular receptor guanylyl cyclase (GC). The latter produces the second messenger cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) that inhibits platelet activation by stimulating protein kinase G, which phosphorylates hundreds of intracellular targets. Intracellular cGMP pools are tightly regulated by a fine balance between GC and phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that are responsible for the hydrolysis of cyclic nucleotides. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) is a cGMP-specific PDE, broadly expressed in most tissues in humans and rodents. In clinical practice, PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i) are used as first-line therapy for erectile dysfunction, pulmonary artery hypertension, and lower urinary tract symptoms. However, several studies have shown that PDE5i may ameliorate the outcome of various other conditions, like heart failure and stroke. Interestingly, NO donors and cGMP analogs increase the capacity of anti-platelet drugs targeting the purinergic receptor type Y, subtype 12 (P2Y12) receptor to block platelet aggregation, and preclinical studies have shown that PDE5i inhibits platelet functions. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of PDE5i on platelet activation and aggregation focusing on the therapeutic potential of PDE5i in platelet disorders, and the outcomes of a combined therapy with PDE5i and NO donors to inhibit platelet activation.

The NO/cGMP/PKG pathway in platelets: The therapeutic potential of PDE5 inhibitors in platelet disorders / Degjoni, Anisa; Campolo, Federica; Stefanini, Lucia; Venneri, Mary Anna. - In: JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS. - ISSN 1538-7933. - (2022). [10.1111/jth.15844]

The NO/cGMP/PKG pathway in platelets: The therapeutic potential of PDE5 inhibitors in platelet disorders

Degjoni, Anisa;Campolo, Federica;Stefanini, Lucia;Venneri, Mary Anna
2022

Abstract

Platelets are the "guardians" of the blood circulatory system. At sites of vessel injury, they ensure hemostasis and promote immunity and vessel repair. However, their uncontrolled activation is one of the main drivers of thrombosis. To keep circulating platelets in a quiescent state, the endothelium releases platelet antagonists including nitric oxide (NO) that acts by stimulating the intracellular receptor guanylyl cyclase (GC). The latter produces the second messenger cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) that inhibits platelet activation by stimulating protein kinase G, which phosphorylates hundreds of intracellular targets. Intracellular cGMP pools are tightly regulated by a fine balance between GC and phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that are responsible for the hydrolysis of cyclic nucleotides. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) is a cGMP-specific PDE, broadly expressed in most tissues in humans and rodents. In clinical practice, PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i) are used as first-line therapy for erectile dysfunction, pulmonary artery hypertension, and lower urinary tract symptoms. However, several studies have shown that PDE5i may ameliorate the outcome of various other conditions, like heart failure and stroke. Interestingly, NO donors and cGMP analogs increase the capacity of anti-platelet drugs targeting the purinergic receptor type Y, subtype 12 (P2Y12) receptor to block platelet aggregation, and preclinical studies have shown that PDE5i inhibits platelet functions. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of PDE5i on platelet activation and aggregation focusing on the therapeutic potential of PDE5i in platelet disorders, and the outcomes of a combined therapy with PDE5i and NO donors to inhibit platelet activation.
2022
cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate; nitric oxide donors; phosphodiesterase type 5; phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors; platelet disorders; thrombosis
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
The NO/cGMP/PKG pathway in platelets: The therapeutic potential of PDE5 inhibitors in platelet disorders / Degjoni, Anisa; Campolo, Federica; Stefanini, Lucia; Venneri, Mary Anna. - In: JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS. - ISSN 1538-7933. - (2022). [10.1111/jth.15844]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1652441
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