Purpose: To provide a review of the literature on oculodermal melanocytosis (ODM) with a focus on the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of multimodal imaging techniques in the management of ophthalmic complications. Methods: The authors carried out a literature search on PubMed, Medline, and Scopus of English language articles published on ODM through August 2021. This review presents traditional and novel diagnostic methods in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with particular emphasis on addressing the role of imaging in the management of the ophthalmic complications of the condition towards improving current practice patterns. Results: ODM is a rare, prevalently unilateral, congenital condition that presents with brown or blue/gray flat asymptomatic lesions of the skin, mucosae, episclera/sclera, and uvea localized within the territory of distribution of the ophthalmic and mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve. Glaucoma and predisposition to uveal melanoma are the main ophthalmic complications. Diagnosis and management are through comprehensive opthalmological examination and traditional imaging methods such as ultrasonography and fluorescein/indocyanine green angiography as pigmentation of the fundus can conceal subtle retinal and choroidal alterations. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy are used to evaluate the anterior segment and the ciliary body in the presence of glaucoma or melanoma of the anterior uveal tract. Fundus autofluorescence and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) alterations are of aid in the differential diagnosis between choroidal nevi and melanoma. Enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography offers outstanding in vivo evaluation of the dimensions and details of tumors or nevi and surrounding choroidal tissues and small choroidal melanomas may show distortions of the retinal and sub-retinal profile, presence of intra and sub-retinal fluid, abnormalities of the RPE, and compression of the choriocapillaris. Conclusions: Novel multimodal imaging techniques are significant in the diagnosis and management of the ophthalmic complications of ODM. Fundus autofluorescence and enhanced depth spectral domain optical coherence tomography have adjunctive value in the detection of early-stage melanoma and differential diagnosis between nevi and melanoma. Awareness of current and emerging imaging techniques can propagate improved standardized definition and assessment of the complications of ODM.

An update on ophthalmological perspectives in oculodermal melanocytosis (Nevus of Ota) / Abdolrahimzadeh, Solmaz; Pugi, DAMIANO MARIA; Manni, Priscilla; Iodice, CLEMENTE MARIA; Di Tizio, Federico; Persechino, Flavia; Scuderi, Gianluca. - In: GRAEFE'S ARCHIVE FOR CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY. - ISSN 1435-702X. - 261:2(2023), pp. 291-301. [10.1007/s00417-022-05743-1]

An update on ophthalmological perspectives in oculodermal melanocytosis (Nevus of Ota)

Solmaz Abdolrahimzadeh
Co-primo
;
Damiano Maria Pugi
Co-primo
;
Priscilla Manni
Secondo
;
Clemente Maria Iodice;Flavia Persechino
Penultimo
;
Gianluca Scuderi
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Purpose: To provide a review of the literature on oculodermal melanocytosis (ODM) with a focus on the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of multimodal imaging techniques in the management of ophthalmic complications. Methods: The authors carried out a literature search on PubMed, Medline, and Scopus of English language articles published on ODM through August 2021. This review presents traditional and novel diagnostic methods in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with particular emphasis on addressing the role of imaging in the management of the ophthalmic complications of the condition towards improving current practice patterns. Results: ODM is a rare, prevalently unilateral, congenital condition that presents with brown or blue/gray flat asymptomatic lesions of the skin, mucosae, episclera/sclera, and uvea localized within the territory of distribution of the ophthalmic and mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve. Glaucoma and predisposition to uveal melanoma are the main ophthalmic complications. Diagnosis and management are through comprehensive opthalmological examination and traditional imaging methods such as ultrasonography and fluorescein/indocyanine green angiography as pigmentation of the fundus can conceal subtle retinal and choroidal alterations. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy are used to evaluate the anterior segment and the ciliary body in the presence of glaucoma or melanoma of the anterior uveal tract. Fundus autofluorescence and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) alterations are of aid in the differential diagnosis between choroidal nevi and melanoma. Enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography offers outstanding in vivo evaluation of the dimensions and details of tumors or nevi and surrounding choroidal tissues and small choroidal melanomas may show distortions of the retinal and sub-retinal profile, presence of intra and sub-retinal fluid, abnormalities of the RPE, and compression of the choriocapillaris. Conclusions: Novel multimodal imaging techniques are significant in the diagnosis and management of the ophthalmic complications of ODM. Fundus autofluorescence and enhanced depth spectral domain optical coherence tomography have adjunctive value in the detection of early-stage melanoma and differential diagnosis between nevi and melanoma. Awareness of current and emerging imaging techniques can propagate improved standardized definition and assessment of the complications of ODM.
2023
glaucoma; multimodal imaging; nevus of ota; oculodermal melanocytosis; uveal melanoma
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
An update on ophthalmological perspectives in oculodermal melanocytosis (Nevus of Ota) / Abdolrahimzadeh, Solmaz; Pugi, DAMIANO MARIA; Manni, Priscilla; Iodice, CLEMENTE MARIA; Di Tizio, Federico; Persechino, Flavia; Scuderi, Gianluca. - In: GRAEFE'S ARCHIVE FOR CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY. - ISSN 1435-702X. - 261:2(2023), pp. 291-301. [10.1007/s00417-022-05743-1]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1652316
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