Purpose: Despite the absorption of oral thyroxine (T4) occurs in the small bowel, several patients with gastric disorders show an increased need for T4. In vitro evidence suggested that medium pH variations interfere with T4 dissolution. This study was aimed at finding the proof of concept of a direct relationship between the minimal effective dose of T4 and the actual gastric juice pH. Patients and methods: Among 311 consecutively thyroxine-treated patients, 61 bearing Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (52 F/9 M; median age = 51 years) who complained persistent dyspepsia and/or upper abdominal symptoms following a noninvasive workup for gastrointestinal disorders, underwent EGDS with multiple biopsies and gastric juice pH measurement. All patients accepted to take thyroxine in fasting conditions, abstaining from eating or drinking for one hour. Results: Thyroxine requirement increased along with the rising gastric pH (ρ = 0.4229; p = 0.0007). A multivariate analysis revealed that gastric pH was, beside body mass index, the far more important independent variable in determining the effective dose of T4 (p = 0.001). The ROC curve revealed that the pH threshold for an increased thyroxine requirement was at 2.28, being the AUC by 78%. Subdividing patients by the histologic findings, it appeared a significant increase (p = 0.0025) along with the progressive damage of gastric mucosa. Conclusion: The in vivo measurement of gastric pH highlighted its key role in determining the minimal effective dose of oral T4 and may explain the interference of food, of some drugs and gut disorders on levothyroxine treatment.

Levothyroxine treatment and gastric juice pH in humans. The proof of concept

Virili C.;Santaguida M. G.;Stramazzo I.;De Vito C.;Cicenia A.;Scalese G.;Porowska B.;Severi C.;Centanni M.
2022

Abstract

Purpose: Despite the absorption of oral thyroxine (T4) occurs in the small bowel, several patients with gastric disorders show an increased need for T4. In vitro evidence suggested that medium pH variations interfere with T4 dissolution. This study was aimed at finding the proof of concept of a direct relationship between the minimal effective dose of T4 and the actual gastric juice pH. Patients and methods: Among 311 consecutively thyroxine-treated patients, 61 bearing Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (52 F/9 M; median age = 51 years) who complained persistent dyspepsia and/or upper abdominal symptoms following a noninvasive workup for gastrointestinal disorders, underwent EGDS with multiple biopsies and gastric juice pH measurement. All patients accepted to take thyroxine in fasting conditions, abstaining from eating or drinking for one hour. Results: Thyroxine requirement increased along with the rising gastric pH (ρ = 0.4229; p = 0.0007). A multivariate analysis revealed that gastric pH was, beside body mass index, the far more important independent variable in determining the effective dose of T4 (p = 0.001). The ROC curve revealed that the pH threshold for an increased thyroxine requirement was at 2.28, being the AUC by 78%. Subdividing patients by the histologic findings, it appeared a significant increase (p = 0.0025) along with the progressive damage of gastric mucosa. Conclusion: The in vivo measurement of gastric pH highlighted its key role in determining the minimal effective dose of oral T4 and may explain the interference of food, of some drugs and gut disorders on levothyroxine treatment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1652228
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