An analysis of the structural effect of the mutations of the B.1.640.2 (IHU) Spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) and N-terminal Domain (NTD) is reported along with a comparison with the sister lineage B.1.640.1. and a selection of variants of concern. The effect of the mutations on the RBD-ACE2 interaction was also assessed. The structural analysis applied computational methods that are able to carry out in silico mutagenesis to calculate energy minimization and the folding energy variation consequent to residue mutations. Tools for electrostatic calculation were applied to quantify and display the protein surface electrostatic potential. Interactions at the RBD-ACE2 interface were scrutinized using computational tools that identify the interactions and predict the contribution of each interface residue to the stability of the complex. The comparison among the RBDs shows that the most evident differences between the variants is in the distribution of the surface electrostatic potential: that of B.1.640.1 is as that of the Alpha RBD, while B.1.640.2 appears to have an intermediate surface potential pattern with characteristics between those of the Alpha and Delta variants. Moreover, the B.1.640.2 Spike includes the mutation E484K that in other variants has been suggested to be involved in immune evasion. These properties may hint at the possibility that B.1.640.2 emerged with a potentially increased infectivity with respect to the sister B.1.640.1 variant, but significantly lower than that of the Delta and Omicron variants. However, the analysis of their NTD domains highlights deletions, destabilizing mutations and charge alterations that can limit the ability of the B.1.640.1 and B.1.640.2 variants to interact with cellular components, such as cell surface receptors.

The biological properties of the SARS-CoV-2 Cameroon variant spike: an intermediate between the Alpha and Delta variants

Pascarella, Stefano;Bianchi, Martina;
2022

Abstract

An analysis of the structural effect of the mutations of the B.1.640.2 (IHU) Spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) and N-terminal Domain (NTD) is reported along with a comparison with the sister lineage B.1.640.1. and a selection of variants of concern. The effect of the mutations on the RBD-ACE2 interaction was also assessed. The structural analysis applied computational methods that are able to carry out in silico mutagenesis to calculate energy minimization and the folding energy variation consequent to residue mutations. Tools for electrostatic calculation were applied to quantify and display the protein surface electrostatic potential. Interactions at the RBD-ACE2 interface were scrutinized using computational tools that identify the interactions and predict the contribution of each interface residue to the stability of the complex. The comparison among the RBDs shows that the most evident differences between the variants is in the distribution of the surface electrostatic potential: that of B.1.640.1 is as that of the Alpha RBD, while B.1.640.2 appears to have an intermediate surface potential pattern with characteristics between those of the Alpha and Delta variants. Moreover, the B.1.640.2 Spike includes the mutation E484K that in other variants has been suggested to be involved in immune evasion. These properties may hint at the possibility that B.1.640.2 emerged with a potentially increased infectivity with respect to the sister B.1.640.1 variant, but significantly lower than that of the Delta and Omicron variants. However, the analysis of their NTD domains highlights deletions, destabilizing mutations and charge alterations that can limit the ability of the B.1.640.1 and B.1.640.2 variants to interact with cellular components, such as cell surface receptors.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/1651441
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