Transposable elements (TEs) are abundant components of constitutive heterochromatin of the most diverse evolutionarily distant organisms. TEs enrichment in constitutive heterochromatin was originally described in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, but it is now considered as a general feature of this peculiar portion of the genomes. The phenomenon of TE enrichment in constitutive heterochromatin has been proposed to be the consequence of a progressive accumulation of transposable elements caused by both reduced recombination and lack of functional genes in constitutive heterochromatin. However, this view does not take into account classical genetics studies and most recent evidence derived by genomic analyses of heterochromatin in Drosophila and other species. In particular, the lack of functional genes does not seem to be any more a general feature of heterochromatin. Sequencing and annotation of Drosophila melanogaster constitutive heterochromatin have shown that this peculiar genomic compartment contains hundreds of transcriptionally active genes, generally larger in size than that of euchromatic ones. Together, these genes occupy a significant fraction of the genomic territory of heterochromatin. Moreover, transposable elements have been suggested to drive the formation of heterochromatin by recruiting HP1 and repressive chromatin marks. In addition, there are several pieces of evidence that transposable elements accumulation in the heterochromatin might be important for centromere and telomere structure. Thus, there may be more complexity to the relationship between transposable elements and constitutive heterochromatin, in that different forces could drive the dynamic of this phenomenon. Among those forces, preferential transposition may be an important factor. In this article, we present an overview of experimental findings showing cases of transposon enrichment into the heterochromatin and their positive evolutionary interactions with an impact to host genomes.

Constitutive Heterochromatin in Eukaryotic Genomes: A Mine of Transposable Elements / Marsano, R. M.; Dimitri, P.. - In: CELLS. - ISSN 2073-4409. - 11:5(2022), pp. 1-15. [10.3390/cells11050761]

Constitutive Heterochromatin in Eukaryotic Genomes: A Mine of Transposable Elements

Dimitri P.
Ultimo
Investigation
2022

Abstract

Transposable elements (TEs) are abundant components of constitutive heterochromatin of the most diverse evolutionarily distant organisms. TEs enrichment in constitutive heterochromatin was originally described in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, but it is now considered as a general feature of this peculiar portion of the genomes. The phenomenon of TE enrichment in constitutive heterochromatin has been proposed to be the consequence of a progressive accumulation of transposable elements caused by both reduced recombination and lack of functional genes in constitutive heterochromatin. However, this view does not take into account classical genetics studies and most recent evidence derived by genomic analyses of heterochromatin in Drosophila and other species. In particular, the lack of functional genes does not seem to be any more a general feature of heterochromatin. Sequencing and annotation of Drosophila melanogaster constitutive heterochromatin have shown that this peculiar genomic compartment contains hundreds of transcriptionally active genes, generally larger in size than that of euchromatic ones. Together, these genes occupy a significant fraction of the genomic territory of heterochromatin. Moreover, transposable elements have been suggested to drive the formation of heterochromatin by recruiting HP1 and repressive chromatin marks. In addition, there are several pieces of evidence that transposable elements accumulation in the heterochromatin might be important for centromere and telomere structure. Thus, there may be more complexity to the relationship between transposable elements and constitutive heterochromatin, in that different forces could drive the dynamic of this phenomenon. Among those forces, preferential transposition may be an important factor. In this article, we present an overview of experimental findings showing cases of transposon enrichment into the heterochromatin and their positive evolutionary interactions with an impact to host genomes.
2022
Drosophila; Heterochromatin; Transposable elements
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Constitutive Heterochromatin in Eukaryotic Genomes: A Mine of Transposable Elements / Marsano, R. M.; Dimitri, P.. - In: CELLS. - ISSN 2073-4409. - 11:5(2022), pp. 1-15. [10.3390/cells11050761]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1643024
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