Background: Scrotal ultrasonography is an essential diagnostic tool in daily clinical practice. The availability of new-generation ultrasound machines characterized by clearly improved image quality, low health cost, and higher patient safety, represents only some characteristics of ultrasound investigation. The usefulness of scrotal ultrasonography is particularly evident in the period of life from infancy to puberty, during which males undergo important morphofunctional changes, and several pathological conditions may occur. Objectives: This pictorial review primarily aimed to investigate the aspects of ultrasonography related to the normal physiological development of the gonads from mini-puberty to pubertal onset. This study also aimed to provide an update on the use of ultrasonography in main andrological pathologies that may occur during this period. The conditions that are discussed in depth are: cryptorchidism, inguinoscrotal hernias, and hydrocele in the neonatal phase; acute scrotum, epididymo-orchitis, and testicular cancers in childhood; and hypogonadism, varicoceles, testicular microlithiasis, and oncohematological pathology in puberty. Discussion: We provided an ultrasound slant for all the above-mentioned pathologies while purposely avoiding excessive deepening of the pathogenetic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects. Studying the ultrasound aspects of the gonads also facilitates differential diagnosis between various conditions and represents a good aid in evaluating therapeutic success (e.g., in hypogonadism or postsurgical evaluation of varicoceles and cryptorchidism). Conclusion: Scrotal ultrasonography is now globally recognized as the necessary completion of clinical–laboratory overview in gonads evaluation. This diagnostic procedure is even more indispensable in the infancy–childhood–puberty period for the evaluation of normal gonadal development as well as diagnosis of other possible diseases.

The role of scrotal ultrasonography from infancy to puberty / Spaziani, M.; Lecis, C.; Tarantino, C.; Sbardella, E.; Pozza, C.; Gianfrilli, D.. - In: ANDROLOGY. - ISSN 2047-2919. - 9:5(2021), pp. 1306-1321. [10.1111/andr.13056]

The role of scrotal ultrasonography from infancy to puberty

Spaziani M.
;
Lecis C.;Tarantino C.;Sbardella E.;Pozza C.;Gianfrilli D.
2021

Abstract

Background: Scrotal ultrasonography is an essential diagnostic tool in daily clinical practice. The availability of new-generation ultrasound machines characterized by clearly improved image quality, low health cost, and higher patient safety, represents only some characteristics of ultrasound investigation. The usefulness of scrotal ultrasonography is particularly evident in the period of life from infancy to puberty, during which males undergo important morphofunctional changes, and several pathological conditions may occur. Objectives: This pictorial review primarily aimed to investigate the aspects of ultrasonography related to the normal physiological development of the gonads from mini-puberty to pubertal onset. This study also aimed to provide an update on the use of ultrasonography in main andrological pathologies that may occur during this period. The conditions that are discussed in depth are: cryptorchidism, inguinoscrotal hernias, and hydrocele in the neonatal phase; acute scrotum, epididymo-orchitis, and testicular cancers in childhood; and hypogonadism, varicoceles, testicular microlithiasis, and oncohematological pathology in puberty. Discussion: We provided an ultrasound slant for all the above-mentioned pathologies while purposely avoiding excessive deepening of the pathogenetic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects. Studying the ultrasound aspects of the gonads also facilitates differential diagnosis between various conditions and represents a good aid in evaluating therapeutic success (e.g., in hypogonadism or postsurgical evaluation of varicoceles and cryptorchidism). Conclusion: Scrotal ultrasonography is now globally recognized as the necessary completion of clinical–laboratory overview in gonads evaluation. This diagnostic procedure is even more indispensable in the infancy–childhood–puberty period for the evaluation of normal gonadal development as well as diagnosis of other possible diseases.
2021
andrological pathologies; childhood; infancy; mini-puberty; puberty; scrotal ultrasonography; Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Genital Diseases, Male; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Medical Illustration; Scrotum; Ultrasonography; Puberty
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
The role of scrotal ultrasonography from infancy to puberty / Spaziani, M.; Lecis, C.; Tarantino, C.; Sbardella, E.; Pozza, C.; Gianfrilli, D.. - In: ANDROLOGY. - ISSN 2047-2919. - 9:5(2021), pp. 1306-1321. [10.1111/andr.13056]
File allegati a questo prodotto
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1642702
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 3
  • Scopus 10
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 9
social impact