Invertases (INVs) and pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are essential enzymes coordinating carbohydrate metabolism, stress responses, and sugar signaling. INVs catalyzes the cleavage of sucrose into glucose and fructose, exerting a pivotal role in sucrose metabolism, cellulose biosynthesis, nitrogen uptake, reactive oxygen species scavenging as well as osmotic stress adaptation. PMEs exert a dynamic control of pectin methylesterification to manage cell adhesion, cell wall porosity, and elasticity, as well as perception and signaling of stresses. INV and PME activities can be regulated by specific proteinaceous inhibitors, named INV inhibitors (INVIs) and PME Inhibitors (PMEIs). Despite targeting different enzymes, INVIs and PMEIs belong to the same large protein family named "Plant Invertase/Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor Superfamily." INVIs and PMEIs, while showing a low aa sequence identity, they share several structural properties. The two inhibitors showed mainly alpha-helices in their secondary structure and both form a non-covalent 1:1 complex with their enzymatic counterpart. Some PMEI members are organized in a gene cluster with specific PMEs. Although the most important physiological information was obtained in Arabidopsis thaliana, there are now several characterized INVI/PMEIs in different plant species. This review provides an integrated and updated overview of this fascinating superfamily, from the specific activity of characterized isoforms to their specific functions in plant physiology. We also highlight INVI/PMEIs as biotechnological tools to control different aspects of plant growth and defense. Some isoforms are discussed in view of their potential applications to improve industrial processes. A review of the nomenclature of some isoforms is carried out to eliminate confusion about the identity and the names of some INVI/PMEI member. Open questions, shortcoming, and opportunities for future research are also presented.

The Plant Invertase/Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor Superfamily / Coculo, Daniele; Lionetti, Vincenzo. - In: FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE. - ISSN 1664-462X. - 13:(2022). [10.3389/fpls.2022.863892]

The Plant Invertase/Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor Superfamily

Coculo, Daniele
Primo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Lionetti, Vincenzo
Ultimo
Writing – Review & Editing
2022

Abstract

Invertases (INVs) and pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are essential enzymes coordinating carbohydrate metabolism, stress responses, and sugar signaling. INVs catalyzes the cleavage of sucrose into glucose and fructose, exerting a pivotal role in sucrose metabolism, cellulose biosynthesis, nitrogen uptake, reactive oxygen species scavenging as well as osmotic stress adaptation. PMEs exert a dynamic control of pectin methylesterification to manage cell adhesion, cell wall porosity, and elasticity, as well as perception and signaling of stresses. INV and PME activities can be regulated by specific proteinaceous inhibitors, named INV inhibitors (INVIs) and PME Inhibitors (PMEIs). Despite targeting different enzymes, INVIs and PMEIs belong to the same large protein family named "Plant Invertase/Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor Superfamily." INVIs and PMEIs, while showing a low aa sequence identity, they share several structural properties. The two inhibitors showed mainly alpha-helices in their secondary structure and both form a non-covalent 1:1 complex with their enzymatic counterpart. Some PMEI members are organized in a gene cluster with specific PMEs. Although the most important physiological information was obtained in Arabidopsis thaliana, there are now several characterized INVI/PMEIs in different plant species. This review provides an integrated and updated overview of this fascinating superfamily, from the specific activity of characterized isoforms to their specific functions in plant physiology. We also highlight INVI/PMEIs as biotechnological tools to control different aspects of plant growth and defense. Some isoforms are discussed in view of their potential applications to improve industrial processes. A review of the nomenclature of some isoforms is carried out to eliminate confusion about the identity and the names of some INVI/PMEI member. Open questions, shortcoming, and opportunities for future research are also presented.
2022
CW integrity; biotechnological applications; degree of methylesterification; invertase inhibitors; pectin methylesterase inhibitors; plant growth and defence; sucrose metabolism
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
The Plant Invertase/Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor Superfamily / Coculo, Daniele; Lionetti, Vincenzo. - In: FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE. - ISSN 1664-462X. - 13:(2022). [10.3389/fpls.2022.863892]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1628905
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