The morphology of subcutaneous calcifications in leg with venous insufficiency are described. Background Calcifications in the subcutaneous layer (SCL) have been described by radiographic studies of legs with advanced chronic venous disease (CVD). However, SCL calcifications have rarely been included among the CVD-related changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and morphology of SCL calcifications in legs with CVD of all grades of severity determined by ultrasound. Methods A total of 500 legs in 250 patients (148 women and 102 men; mean age, 51 years; range, 18-87 years) referred to our vascular clinic for symptoms and signs of CVD were included. After duplex ultrasound evaluation of the deep, superficial, and perforating veins, the skin and SCL were investigated using duplex ultrasound. Those patients with other possible causes of SCL calcification were excluded. Results Using the C component of the CEAP (clinical, etiologic, anatomic, pathophysiologic) classification, 43 legs were classified as C1, 189 as C2, 34 as C3, 16 as C4A, 45 as C4B or C, 18 as C5, and 16 as C6. Varicose veins were reported in 273 legs, and lipodermatosclerosis in 79 legs. Subcutaneous calcifications were demonstrated in 35 of 361 legs with CVD in two different locations: the wall of superficial varicose veins and in subcutaneous tissue unrelated to the path of the superficial veins. Superficial veins calcifications were found in 12 of 273 legs with varicose veins (4.4%) and were found in older patients with severe varicose vein disease (grade 3 using the venous clinical severity score and disease duration >30 years). Subcutaneous tissue calcifications (STCs) were found in 24 of 95 legs with a more advanced CVD stage (C4A-C6). No STCs were found in legs with a C1, C2, or C3 class. Conclusions Superficial veins calcifications were found only in the legs with severe and long-lasting varicose veins and seemed to be related to chronic severe inflammation of the venous wall. STCs were independent of the vein wall and were found only in the damaged areas of legs with severe CVD (C4-C6). STCs are possibly related to chronic inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue. Their avulsion from the ulcer bed has been recommended to facilitate ulcer healing and prevent recurrence. Clinical Relevance Calcification of the subcutaneous fat tissue or of the wall of varicose veins is easily demonstrated using ultrasound. These calcifications occur in legs with severe and long-lasting chronic venous insufficiency or varicose disease. Their avulsion is recommended when found in the ulcer bed or borders. Further studies are necessary to define their prognostic significance and other possible clinical implications.

Subcutaneous calcifications in legs with chronic venous diseases / Caggiati, Alberto; Mosti, Giovanni. - In: JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY: VENOUS AND LYMPHATIC DISORDERS. - ISSN 2213-333X. - (2022). [10.1016/j.jvsv.2022.02.008]

Subcutaneous calcifications in legs with chronic venous diseases

Caggiati, Alberto
;
2022

Abstract

The morphology of subcutaneous calcifications in leg with venous insufficiency are described. Background Calcifications in the subcutaneous layer (SCL) have been described by radiographic studies of legs with advanced chronic venous disease (CVD). However, SCL calcifications have rarely been included among the CVD-related changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and morphology of SCL calcifications in legs with CVD of all grades of severity determined by ultrasound. Methods A total of 500 legs in 250 patients (148 women and 102 men; mean age, 51 years; range, 18-87 years) referred to our vascular clinic for symptoms and signs of CVD were included. After duplex ultrasound evaluation of the deep, superficial, and perforating veins, the skin and SCL were investigated using duplex ultrasound. Those patients with other possible causes of SCL calcification were excluded. Results Using the C component of the CEAP (clinical, etiologic, anatomic, pathophysiologic) classification, 43 legs were classified as C1, 189 as C2, 34 as C3, 16 as C4A, 45 as C4B or C, 18 as C5, and 16 as C6. Varicose veins were reported in 273 legs, and lipodermatosclerosis in 79 legs. Subcutaneous calcifications were demonstrated in 35 of 361 legs with CVD in two different locations: the wall of superficial varicose veins and in subcutaneous tissue unrelated to the path of the superficial veins. Superficial veins calcifications were found in 12 of 273 legs with varicose veins (4.4%) and were found in older patients with severe varicose vein disease (grade 3 using the venous clinical severity score and disease duration >30 years). Subcutaneous tissue calcifications (STCs) were found in 24 of 95 legs with a more advanced CVD stage (C4A-C6). No STCs were found in legs with a C1, C2, or C3 class. Conclusions Superficial veins calcifications were found only in the legs with severe and long-lasting varicose veins and seemed to be related to chronic severe inflammation of the venous wall. STCs were independent of the vein wall and were found only in the damaged areas of legs with severe CVD (C4-C6). STCs are possibly related to chronic inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue. Their avulsion from the ulcer bed has been recommended to facilitate ulcer healing and prevent recurrence. Clinical Relevance Calcification of the subcutaneous fat tissue or of the wall of varicose veins is easily demonstrated using ultrasound. These calcifications occur in legs with severe and long-lasting chronic venous insufficiency or varicose disease. Their avulsion is recommended when found in the ulcer bed or borders. Further studies are necessary to define their prognostic significance and other possible clinical implications.
2022
venous insufficiency; calcifications; skin ultrasound; subcutaneous calcification; venous disease; venous ulcer
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Subcutaneous calcifications in legs with chronic venous diseases / Caggiati, Alberto; Mosti, Giovanni. - In: JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY: VENOUS AND LYMPHATIC DISORDERS. - ISSN 2213-333X. - (2022). [10.1016/j.jvsv.2022.02.008]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1618718
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