Background: Arrhythmic death is very common among patients with structural heart disease, and it is estimated that in European countries, 1 per 1000 inhabitants yearly dies for sudden cardiac death (SCD), mainly as a result of ventricular arrhythmias (VA). The scar is the result of cardiac remodelling process that occurs in several cardiomyopathies, both ischemic and non-ischemic, and is considered the perfect substrate for re-entrant and non-re-entrant arrhythmias. Methods: Our aim was to review published evidence on the histological and electrophysiological properties of myocardial scar and to review the central role of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in assessing ventricular arrhythmias substrate and its potential implication in risk stratification of SCD. Results: Scarring process affects both structural and electrical myocardial properties and paves the background for enhanced arrhythmogenicity. Non-uniform anisotropic conduction, gap junctions remodelling, source to sink mismatch and refractoriness dispersion are some of the underlining mechanisms contributing to arrhythmic potential of the scar. All these mechanisms lead to the initiation and maintenance of VA. CMR has a crucial role in the evaluation of patients suffering from VA, as it is considered the gold standard imaging test for scar characterization. Mounting evidences support the use of CMR not only for the definition of gross scar features, as size, localization and transmurality, but also for the identification of possible conducting channels suitable of discrete ablation. Moreover, several studies call out the CMR-based scar characterization as a stratification tool useful in selecting patients at risk of SCD and amenable to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Conclusions: Scar represents the substrate of ventricular arrhythmias. CMR, defining scar presence and its features, may be a useful tool for guiding ablation procedures and for identifying patients at risk of SCD amenable to ICD therapy.

The scar: the wind in the perfect storm—insights into the mysterious living tissue originating ventricular arrhythmias / Pandozi, C.; Mariani, Marco Valerio; Chimenti, C.; Maestrini, V.; Filomena, D.; Magnocavallo, M.; Straito, M.; Piro, A.; Russo, M.; Galeazzi, M.; Ficili, S.; Colivicchi, F.; Severino, P.; Mancone, M.; Fedele, F.; Lavalle, C.. - In: JOURNAL OF INTERVENTIONAL CARDIAC ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY. - ISSN 1383-875X. - (2022). [10.1007/s10840-021-01104-w]

The scar: the wind in the perfect storm—insights into the mysterious living tissue originating ventricular arrhythmias

Mariani, Marco Valerio;Chimenti, C.;Maestrini, V.;Filomena, D.;Magnocavallo, M.;Straito, M.;Piro, A.;Galeazzi, M.;Severino, P.;Mancone, M.;Fedele, F.;Lavalle, C.
2022

Abstract

Background: Arrhythmic death is very common among patients with structural heart disease, and it is estimated that in European countries, 1 per 1000 inhabitants yearly dies for sudden cardiac death (SCD), mainly as a result of ventricular arrhythmias (VA). The scar is the result of cardiac remodelling process that occurs in several cardiomyopathies, both ischemic and non-ischemic, and is considered the perfect substrate for re-entrant and non-re-entrant arrhythmias. Methods: Our aim was to review published evidence on the histological and electrophysiological properties of myocardial scar and to review the central role of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in assessing ventricular arrhythmias substrate and its potential implication in risk stratification of SCD. Results: Scarring process affects both structural and electrical myocardial properties and paves the background for enhanced arrhythmogenicity. Non-uniform anisotropic conduction, gap junctions remodelling, source to sink mismatch and refractoriness dispersion are some of the underlining mechanisms contributing to arrhythmic potential of the scar. All these mechanisms lead to the initiation and maintenance of VA. CMR has a crucial role in the evaluation of patients suffering from VA, as it is considered the gold standard imaging test for scar characterization. Mounting evidences support the use of CMR not only for the definition of gross scar features, as size, localization and transmurality, but also for the identification of possible conducting channels suitable of discrete ablation. Moreover, several studies call out the CMR-based scar characterization as a stratification tool useful in selecting patients at risk of SCD and amenable to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Conclusions: Scar represents the substrate of ventricular arrhythmias. CMR, defining scar presence and its features, may be a useful tool for guiding ablation procedures and for identifying patients at risk of SCD amenable to ICD therapy.
2022
Cardiac magnetic resonance; Catheter ablation; Scar; Ventricular arrhythmia.
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
The scar: the wind in the perfect storm—insights into the mysterious living tissue originating ventricular arrhythmias / Pandozi, C.; Mariani, Marco Valerio; Chimenti, C.; Maestrini, V.; Filomena, D.; Magnocavallo, M.; Straito, M.; Piro, A.; Russo, M.; Galeazzi, M.; Ficili, S.; Colivicchi, F.; Severino, P.; Mancone, M.; Fedele, F.; Lavalle, C.. - In: JOURNAL OF INTERVENTIONAL CARDIAC ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY. - ISSN 1383-875X. - (2022). [10.1007/s10840-021-01104-w]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1611078
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