Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to impaired insulin secretion and/or action. All diabetes types have a strong genetic component. The most frequent forms, type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), are multifactorial syndromes associated with several genes' effects together with environmental factors. Conversely, rare forms, neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), are caused by mutations in single genes. Large scale genome screenings led to the identification of hundreds of putative causative genes for multigenic diabetes, but all the loci identified so far explain only a small proportion of heritability. Nevertheless, several recent studies allowed not only the identification of some genes as causative, but also as putative targets of new drugs. Although monogenic forms of diabetes are the most suited to perform a precision approach and allow an accurate diagnosis, at least 80% of all monogenic cases remain still undiagnosed. The knowledge acquired so far addresses the future work towards a study more focused on the identification of diabetes causal variants; this aim will be reached only by combining expertise from different areas. In this perspective, model organism research is crucial. This review traces an overview of the genetics of diabetes and mainly focuses on Drosophila as a model system, describing how flies can contribute to diabetes knowledge advancement.

The genetics of diabetes: what we can learn from Drosophila / Liguori, Francesco; Mascolo, Elisa; Verni', Fiammetta. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1661-6596. - 22:(2021). [10.3390/ijms222011295]

The genetics of diabetes: what we can learn from Drosophila

francesco liguori
Conceptualization
;
elisa mascolo
Conceptualization
;
fiammetta Vernì
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
2021

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to impaired insulin secretion and/or action. All diabetes types have a strong genetic component. The most frequent forms, type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), are multifactorial syndromes associated with several genes' effects together with environmental factors. Conversely, rare forms, neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), are caused by mutations in single genes. Large scale genome screenings led to the identification of hundreds of putative causative genes for multigenic diabetes, but all the loci identified so far explain only a small proportion of heritability. Nevertheless, several recent studies allowed not only the identification of some genes as causative, but also as putative targets of new drugs. Although monogenic forms of diabetes are the most suited to perform a precision approach and allow an accurate diagnosis, at least 80% of all monogenic cases remain still undiagnosed. The knowledge acquired so far addresses the future work towards a study more focused on the identification of diabetes causal variants; this aim will be reached only by combining expertise from different areas. In this perspective, model organism research is crucial. This review traces an overview of the genetics of diabetes and mainly focuses on Drosophila as a model system, describing how flies can contribute to diabetes knowledge advancement.
2021
Drosophila; diabetes; glucose homeostasis; insulin signaling
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
The genetics of diabetes: what we can learn from Drosophila / Liguori, Francesco; Mascolo, Elisa; Verni', Fiammetta. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1661-6596. - 22:(2021). [10.3390/ijms222011295]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1582519
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