Artificial intelligence (AI) uses mathematical algorithms to perform tasks that require human cognitive abilities. AI-based methodologies, e.g., machine learning and deep learning, as well as the recently developed research field of radiomics have noticeable potential to transform medical diagnostics. AI-based techniques applied to medical imaging allow to detect biological abnormalities, to diagnostic neoplasms or to predict the response to treatment. Nonetheless, the diagnostic accuracy of these methods is still a matter of debate. In this article, we first illustrate the key concepts and workflow characteristics of machine learning, deep learning and radiomics. We outline considerations regarding data input requirements, differences among these methodologies and their limitations. Subsequently, a concise overview is presented regarding the application of AI methods to the evaluation of thyroid images. We developed a critical discussion concerning limits and open challenges that should be addressed before the translation of AI techniques to the broad clinical use. Clarification of the pitfalls of AI-based techniques results crucial in order to ensure the optimal application for each patient.

Artificial intelligence in thyroid field. A comprehensive review / Bini, F.; Pica, A.; Azzimonti, L.; Giusti, A.; Ruinelli, L.; Marinozzi, F.; Trimboli, P.. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 13:19(2021). [10.3390/cancers13194740]

Artificial intelligence in thyroid field. A comprehensive review

Bini F.
;
Pica A.;Marinozzi F.;
2021

Abstract

Artificial intelligence (AI) uses mathematical algorithms to perform tasks that require human cognitive abilities. AI-based methodologies, e.g., machine learning and deep learning, as well as the recently developed research field of radiomics have noticeable potential to transform medical diagnostics. AI-based techniques applied to medical imaging allow to detect biological abnormalities, to diagnostic neoplasms or to predict the response to treatment. Nonetheless, the diagnostic accuracy of these methods is still a matter of debate. In this article, we first illustrate the key concepts and workflow characteristics of machine learning, deep learning and radiomics. We outline considerations regarding data input requirements, differences among these methodologies and their limitations. Subsequently, a concise overview is presented regarding the application of AI methods to the evaluation of thyroid images. We developed a critical discussion concerning limits and open challenges that should be addressed before the translation of AI techniques to the broad clinical use. Clarification of the pitfalls of AI-based techniques results crucial in order to ensure the optimal application for each patient.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1579611
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