The global COVID-19 pandemic certainly has posed one of the more difficult challenges for researchers in the current century. The development of an automatic diagnostic tool, able to detect the disease in its early stage, could undoubtedly offer a great advantage to the battle against the pandemic. In this regard, most of the research efforts have been focused on the application of Deep Learning (DL) techniques to chest images, including traditional chest X-rays (CXRs) and Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Although these approaches have demonstrated their effectiveness in detecting the COVID-19 disease, they are of huge computational complexity and require large datasets for training. In addition, there may not exist a large amount of COVID-19 CXRs and CT scans available to researchers. To this end, in this paper, we propose an approach based on the evaluation of the histogram from a common class of images that is considered as the target. A suitable inter-histogram distance measures how this target histogram is far from the histogram evaluated on a test image: if this distance is greater than a threshold, the test image is labeled as anomaly, i.e., the scan belongs to a patient affected by COVID-19 disease. Extensive experimental results and comparisons with some benchmark state-of-the-art methods support the effectiveness of the developed approach, as well as demonstrate that, at least when the images of the considered datasets are homogeneous enough (i.e., a few outliers are present), it is not really needed to resort to complex-to-implement DL techniques, in order to attain an effective detection of the COVID-19 disease. Despite the simplicity of the proposed approach, all the considered metrics (i.e., accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure) attain a value of 1.0 under the selected datasets, a result comparable to the corresponding state-of-the-art DNN approaches, but with a remarkable computational simplicity.

A histogram-based low-complexity approach for the effective detection of COVID-19 disease from CT and X-ray images / Scarpiniti, M.; Sarv Ahrabi, S.; Baccarelli, E.; Piazzo, L.; Momenzadeh, A.. - In: APPLIED SCIENCES. - ISSN 2076-3417. - 11:19(2021), pp. 1-25. [10.3390/app11198867]

A histogram-based low-complexity approach for the effective detection of COVID-19 disease from CT and X-ray images

Scarpiniti M.
;
Sarv Ahrabi S.;Baccarelli E.;Piazzo L.;Momenzadeh A.
2021

Abstract

The global COVID-19 pandemic certainly has posed one of the more difficult challenges for researchers in the current century. The development of an automatic diagnostic tool, able to detect the disease in its early stage, could undoubtedly offer a great advantage to the battle against the pandemic. In this regard, most of the research efforts have been focused on the application of Deep Learning (DL) techniques to chest images, including traditional chest X-rays (CXRs) and Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Although these approaches have demonstrated their effectiveness in detecting the COVID-19 disease, they are of huge computational complexity and require large datasets for training. In addition, there may not exist a large amount of COVID-19 CXRs and CT scans available to researchers. To this end, in this paper, we propose an approach based on the evaluation of the histogram from a common class of images that is considered as the target. A suitable inter-histogram distance measures how this target histogram is far from the histogram evaluated on a test image: if this distance is greater than a threshold, the test image is labeled as anomaly, i.e., the scan belongs to a patient affected by COVID-19 disease. Extensive experimental results and comparisons with some benchmark state-of-the-art methods support the effectiveness of the developed approach, as well as demonstrate that, at least when the images of the considered datasets are homogeneous enough (i.e., a few outliers are present), it is not really needed to resort to complex-to-implement DL techniques, in order to attain an effective detection of the COVID-19 disease. Despite the simplicity of the proposed approach, all the considered metrics (i.e., accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure) attain a value of 1.0 under the selected datasets, a result comparable to the corresponding state-of-the-art DNN approaches, but with a remarkable computational simplicity.
anomaly detection; chest X-Ray (CXR); computed tomography (CT); COVID-19; inter-histogram distance; pneumonia
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A histogram-based low-complexity approach for the effective detection of COVID-19 disease from CT and X-ray images / Scarpiniti, M.; Sarv Ahrabi, S.; Baccarelli, E.; Piazzo, L.; Momenzadeh, A.. - In: APPLIED SCIENCES. - ISSN 2076-3417. - 11:19(2021), pp. 1-25. [10.3390/app11198867]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1573986
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