Abstract: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory disease of the cornea and conjunctiva mostly affecting boys in prepubertal age. VKC recurrence is characterized by intense symptoms of itching, redness, and photophobia associated with corneal damage, impairment of visual function, and quality of life. The pathogenesis of VKC has not yet been completely understood, and it is still controversial. In fact, VKC is considered an ocular allergic disease due to the involvement of immunoglobulin E, eosinophils, and mast cells, and of a lymphocyte T-helper type 2 reaction. However, approximately half of VKC patients have negative allergological history and testing, suggesting that other pathogenic mechanisms participate in VKC development and severity. Specifically, evidence suggests that genetic, endocrine, neuronal factors and an imbalance of innate immunity are involved in the pathogenesis of VKC. The purpose of this review is to summarize evidence on the pathogenic role of innate immunity, neuroimmune reaction, and hormonal changes in VKC. Increasing understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms behind VKC may lead to the identification of novel biomarkers for diagnosis and/or potential therapeutic targets in order to improve the management of this challenging condition.

Understanding vernal keratoconjunctivitis: beyond allergic mechanisms / Sacchetti, Marta; Plateroti, Rocco; Bruscolini, Alice; Giustolisi, Rosalia; Marenco, Marco. - In: LIFE. - ISSN 2075-1729. - 11:10(2021). [10.3390/life11101012]

Understanding vernal keratoconjunctivitis: beyond allergic mechanisms

Sacchetti, Marta
Primo
;
Plateroti, Rocco
Secondo
;
Bruscolini, Alice;Giustolisi, Rosalia
Penultimo
;
Marenco, Marco
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Abstract: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory disease of the cornea and conjunctiva mostly affecting boys in prepubertal age. VKC recurrence is characterized by intense symptoms of itching, redness, and photophobia associated with corneal damage, impairment of visual function, and quality of life. The pathogenesis of VKC has not yet been completely understood, and it is still controversial. In fact, VKC is considered an ocular allergic disease due to the involvement of immunoglobulin E, eosinophils, and mast cells, and of a lymphocyte T-helper type 2 reaction. However, approximately half of VKC patients have negative allergological history and testing, suggesting that other pathogenic mechanisms participate in VKC development and severity. Specifically, evidence suggests that genetic, endocrine, neuronal factors and an imbalance of innate immunity are involved in the pathogenesis of VKC. The purpose of this review is to summarize evidence on the pathogenic role of innate immunity, neuroimmune reaction, and hormonal changes in VKC. Increasing understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms behind VKC may lead to the identification of novel biomarkers for diagnosis and/or potential therapeutic targets in order to improve the management of this challenging condition.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1573716
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