Background: Residential segregation is a spatial manifestation of structural racism. Racial disparities in emergency department (ED) utilization mirror social inequity in the larger community. We evaluated associations between residential segregation and ED utilization in a community with known disparities and geographically concentrated social and health risk. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from electronic medical records of 101 060 adult ED patients living in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina in 2017. Community context was measured as residential segregation using the dissimilarity index, categorized into quintiles (Q1–Q5) using 2013–2017 American Community Survey estimates, and residency in a public health priority area (PHPA). The outcome was measured as total ED visits during the study period. Associations between community context and ED utilization were modeled using Anderson’s behavioral model of health service utilization, and estimated using negative binomial regression, including interaction terms by race. Results: Compared to areas with the lowest proportions of Black residents (Q1), living in Q4 was associated with higher rates of ED utilization among Black/Other (AME = 0.11) and White (AME = 0.23) patients, while associations with living in Q5 were approximately equivalent (AME = 0.12). PHPA residency was associated with higher rates of ED utilization among Black/Other (AME = 0.10) and White patients (AME = 0.22). Limitations: Associations should not be interpreted as causal, or be generalized to the larger community without ED utilization. Health system leakage is possible but limited. Conclusions: Residential segregation is associated with higher rates of ED utilization, as are PHPA residency and other individual-level determinants.

Residential segregation and emergency department utilization among an underserved urban emergency department sample in North Carolina / Mayfield, Carlene A.; Urquieta de Hernandez, Brisa; Geraci, Marco; Eberth, Jan M.; Dulin, Michael; Merchant, Anwar T.. - In: NORTH CAROLINA MEDICAL JOURNAL. - ISSN 0029-2559. - 83:1(2021), pp. 5-14.

Residential segregation and emergency department utilization among an underserved urban emergency department sample in North Carolina

Marco Geraci;
2021

Abstract

Background: Residential segregation is a spatial manifestation of structural racism. Racial disparities in emergency department (ED) utilization mirror social inequity in the larger community. We evaluated associations between residential segregation and ED utilization in a community with known disparities and geographically concentrated social and health risk. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from electronic medical records of 101 060 adult ED patients living in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina in 2017. Community context was measured as residential segregation using the dissimilarity index, categorized into quintiles (Q1–Q5) using 2013–2017 American Community Survey estimates, and residency in a public health priority area (PHPA). The outcome was measured as total ED visits during the study period. Associations between community context and ED utilization were modeled using Anderson’s behavioral model of health service utilization, and estimated using negative binomial regression, including interaction terms by race. Results: Compared to areas with the lowest proportions of Black residents (Q1), living in Q4 was associated with higher rates of ED utilization among Black/Other (AME = 0.11) and White (AME = 0.23) patients, while associations with living in Q5 were approximately equivalent (AME = 0.12). PHPA residency was associated with higher rates of ED utilization among Black/Other (AME = 0.10) and White patients (AME = 0.22). Limitations: Associations should not be interpreted as causal, or be generalized to the larger community without ED utilization. Health system leakage is possible but limited. Conclusions: Residential segregation is associated with higher rates of ED utilization, as are PHPA residency and other individual-level determinants.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1572852
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