Autophagy is a lysosomal-dependent degradative mechanism essential in maintaining cellular homeostasis, but it is also considered an ancient form of innate eukaryotic fighting against invading microorganisms. Mounting evidence has shown that HIV-1 is a critical target of autophagy that plays a role in HIV-1 replication and disease progression. In a special subset of HIV-1-infected patients that spontaneously and durably maintain extremely low viral replication, namely, long-term nonprogressors (LTNP), the resistance to HIV-1-induced pathogenesis is accompanied, in vivo, by a significant increase in the autophagic activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Recently, a new player in the battle of autophagy against HIV-1 has been identified, namely, tripartite motif protein 5α (TRIM5α). In vitro data demonstrated that TRIM5α directly recognizes HIV-1 and targets it for autophagic destruction, thus protecting cells against HIV-1 infection. In this paper, we analyzed the involvement of this factor in the control of HIV-1 infection through autophagy, in vivo, in LTNP. The results obtained showed significantly higher levels of TRIM5α expression in cells from LTNP with respect to HIV-1-infected normal progressor patients. Interestingly, the colocalization of TRIM5α and HIV-1 proteins in autophagic vacuoles in LTNP cells suggested the participation of TRIM5α in the autophagy containment of HIV-1 in LTNP. Altogether, our results point to a protective role of TRIM5α in the successful control of the chronic viral infection in HIV-1-controllers through the autophagy mechanism. In our opinion, these findings could be relevant in fighting against HIV-1 disease, because autophagy inducers might be employed in combination with antiretroviral drugs.

High Levels of TRIM5α Are Associated with Xenophagy in HIV-1-Infected Long-Term Nonprogressors / Ciccosanti, F.; Corazzari, M.; Casetti, R.; Amendola, A.; Collalto, D.; Refolo, G.; Vergori, A.; Taibi, C.; D'Offizi, G.; Antinori, A.; Agrati, C.; Fimia, G. M.; Ippolito, G.; Piacentini, M.; Nardacci, R.. - In: CELLS. - ISSN 2073-4409. - 10:5(2021). [10.3390/cells10051207]

High Levels of TRIM5α Are Associated with Xenophagy in HIV-1-Infected Long-Term Nonprogressors

Fimia G. M.;
2021

Abstract

Autophagy is a lysosomal-dependent degradative mechanism essential in maintaining cellular homeostasis, but it is also considered an ancient form of innate eukaryotic fighting against invading microorganisms. Mounting evidence has shown that HIV-1 is a critical target of autophagy that plays a role in HIV-1 replication and disease progression. In a special subset of HIV-1-infected patients that spontaneously and durably maintain extremely low viral replication, namely, long-term nonprogressors (LTNP), the resistance to HIV-1-induced pathogenesis is accompanied, in vivo, by a significant increase in the autophagic activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Recently, a new player in the battle of autophagy against HIV-1 has been identified, namely, tripartite motif protein 5α (TRIM5α). In vitro data demonstrated that TRIM5α directly recognizes HIV-1 and targets it for autophagic destruction, thus protecting cells against HIV-1 infection. In this paper, we analyzed the involvement of this factor in the control of HIV-1 infection through autophagy, in vivo, in LTNP. The results obtained showed significantly higher levels of TRIM5α expression in cells from LTNP with respect to HIV-1-infected normal progressor patients. Interestingly, the colocalization of TRIM5α and HIV-1 proteins in autophagic vacuoles in LTNP cells suggested the participation of TRIM5α in the autophagy containment of HIV-1 in LTNP. Altogether, our results point to a protective role of TRIM5α in the successful control of the chronic viral infection in HIV-1-controllers through the autophagy mechanism. In our opinion, these findings could be relevant in fighting against HIV-1 disease, because autophagy inducers might be employed in combination with antiretroviral drugs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1572512
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