Monoclonal Gammopathies (MG) encompass a variety of disorders related to clonal expansion and/or malignant transformation of B lymphocytes. Deposition of free immunoglobulin (Ig) components (light or heavy chains, LC/HC) within the kidney during MG may result over time in multiple types and degrees of injury, including Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). AKI is generally a consequence of tubular obstruction by luminal aggregates of LC, a pattern known as “cast nephropathy”. Monoclonal Ig LC can also be found as intracellular crystals in glomerular podocytes or proximal tubular cells. Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal Ig deposits is another, less frequent form of kidney injury with a sizable impact on renal function. Hypercalcemia (in turn related to bone reabsorption triggered by proliferating plasmacytoid B cells) may lead to AKI via functional mechanisms. Pharmacologic treatment of MG may also result in additional renal injury due to local toxicity or the tumor lysis syndrome. The present review focuses on AKI complicating MG, evaluating predictors, risk factors, mechanisms of damage, prognosis and options for treatment.

Acute Kidney Injury in Monoclonal Gammopathies / Menè, Paolo; Moioli, Alessandra; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Lai, Silvia; Festuccia, Francescaromana. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 2077-0383. - 10:17(2021), pp. 1-18. [10.3390/jcm10173871]

Acute Kidney Injury in Monoclonal Gammopathies

Menè, Paolo
;
Stoppacciaro, Antonella;Lai, Silvia;
2021

Abstract

Monoclonal Gammopathies (MG) encompass a variety of disorders related to clonal expansion and/or malignant transformation of B lymphocytes. Deposition of free immunoglobulin (Ig) components (light or heavy chains, LC/HC) within the kidney during MG may result over time in multiple types and degrees of injury, including Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). AKI is generally a consequence of tubular obstruction by luminal aggregates of LC, a pattern known as “cast nephropathy”. Monoclonal Ig LC can also be found as intracellular crystals in glomerular podocytes or proximal tubular cells. Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal Ig deposits is another, less frequent form of kidney injury with a sizable impact on renal function. Hypercalcemia (in turn related to bone reabsorption triggered by proliferating plasmacytoid B cells) may lead to AKI via functional mechanisms. Pharmacologic treatment of MG may also result in additional renal injury due to local toxicity or the tumor lysis syndrome. The present review focuses on AKI complicating MG, evaluating predictors, risk factors, mechanisms of damage, prognosis and options for treatment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1566884
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