Background: Ultrasound is the main requested technique for the assessment of traumatic, vascular, neoplastic, and inflammatory testicular pathology. Moreover, the role of ultrasound has broadened over the years along with the introduction of new techniques, such as contrast enhanced ultrasound and ultrasound elastography. Objective: An updated representation of the pre-existing Literature evidence for multiparametric ultrasound imaging with particular regard to elastography, in the evaluation of focal and diffuse testicular pathologies, has been presented. Methods: The search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus databases from the earliest available article (1977) until January 2021. Based on the evidence of the Literature, the current role of US imaging for focal and diffuse testicular pathologies has been reported and illustrated, with emphasis on examination technique, classification, and pitfalls. Results: Multiparametric Ultrasound has a recognized role for testicle focal and diffuse disease. Elastography is nowadays recognized as an essential part of the multiparametric ultrasound examination. However, in the setting of testicular pathology this method showed some promising results in the setting of varicocoele and for focal lesions characterization. In the remaining field its role is still under debate. Discussion: B-mode ultrasound and color Doppler ultrasound have been for a long time the diagnostic gold standard for testicular pathologies. The introduction of both contrast enhanced ultrasound and elastography in the last two decades has brought to the emergence of the multiparametric ultrasound concept. These methods are currently able to increase diagnostic confidence especially for testicular lesions characterization, with different relevance depending on the pathology under consideration. Conclusion: Multiparametric ultrasound testis assessment, with specific regard to elastography is nowadays recommended for focal and diffuse disease evaluation. Further and larger studies are however needed to validate these results and to understand if the role of elastography in testicular pathology may be broadened.

Role of multiparametric ultrasound in testicular focal lesions and diffuse pathology evaluation, with particular regard to elastography: review of literature / Cantisani, V.; Di Leo, N.; Bertolotto, M.; Fresilli, D.; Granata, A.; Polti, G.; Polito, E.; Pacini, P.; Guiban, O.; Del Gaudio, G.; Dolcetti, V.; D'Andrea, V.; Di Pierro, G. B.; Verrengia, M.; Drudi, F. M.; Catalano, C.. - In: ANDROLOGY. - ISSN 2047-2919. - (2021). [10.1111/andr.13067]

Role of multiparametric ultrasound in testicular focal lesions and diffuse pathology evaluation, with particular regard to elastography: review of literature

Cantisani V.
Primo
;
Di Leo N.
Secondo
;
Fresilli D.;Polti G.;Polito E.;Pacini P.;Guiban O.;Del Gaudio G.;Dolcetti V.;D'Andrea V.;Di Pierro G. B.;Drudi F. M.
Penultimo
;
Catalano C.
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Background: Ultrasound is the main requested technique for the assessment of traumatic, vascular, neoplastic, and inflammatory testicular pathology. Moreover, the role of ultrasound has broadened over the years along with the introduction of new techniques, such as contrast enhanced ultrasound and ultrasound elastography. Objective: An updated representation of the pre-existing Literature evidence for multiparametric ultrasound imaging with particular regard to elastography, in the evaluation of focal and diffuse testicular pathologies, has been presented. Methods: The search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus databases from the earliest available article (1977) until January 2021. Based on the evidence of the Literature, the current role of US imaging for focal and diffuse testicular pathologies has been reported and illustrated, with emphasis on examination technique, classification, and pitfalls. Results: Multiparametric Ultrasound has a recognized role for testicle focal and diffuse disease. Elastography is nowadays recognized as an essential part of the multiparametric ultrasound examination. However, in the setting of testicular pathology this method showed some promising results in the setting of varicocoele and for focal lesions characterization. In the remaining field its role is still under debate. Discussion: B-mode ultrasound and color Doppler ultrasound have been for a long time the diagnostic gold standard for testicular pathologies. The introduction of both contrast enhanced ultrasound and elastography in the last two decades has brought to the emergence of the multiparametric ultrasound concept. These methods are currently able to increase diagnostic confidence especially for testicular lesions characterization, with different relevance depending on the pathology under consideration. Conclusion: Multiparametric ultrasound testis assessment, with specific regard to elastography is nowadays recommended for focal and diffuse disease evaluation. Further and larger studies are however needed to validate these results and to understand if the role of elastography in testicular pathology may be broadened.
2021
elastography; multiparametric ultrasound; orchitis; scrotal trauma; testicular torsion; testis tumor
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
Role of multiparametric ultrasound in testicular focal lesions and diffuse pathology evaluation, with particular regard to elastography: review of literature / Cantisani, V.; Di Leo, N.; Bertolotto, M.; Fresilli, D.; Granata, A.; Polti, G.; Polito, E.; Pacini, P.; Guiban, O.; Del Gaudio, G.; Dolcetti, V.; D'Andrea, V.; Di Pierro, G. B.; Verrengia, M.; Drudi, F. M.; Catalano, C.. - In: ANDROLOGY. - ISSN 2047-2919. - (2021). [10.1111/andr.13067]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1557067
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