Introduction/Aim: Circadian clock disruption is emerging as a risk factor for metabolic disorders, and particularly, alterations in clock genes circadian expression have been shown to influence insulin sensitivity. Recently, the reciprocal interplay between the circadian clock machinery and hypothal­amus-pituitary-adrenal axis has been largely demonstrated: the circadian clock may control the physiological circadian endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) secretion and action; GCs, in turn, are potent regulators of the circadian clock and their inappropriate replacement has been associated with metabolic impairment. The aim of the current study was to investigate in vitro the interaction between the timing-of-the-day exposure to different hydrocortisone (HC) concentrations and muscle insulin sensitivity. Methods: Serum-shock synchronized mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 cells were exposed to different HC concentrations resembling the circulating daily physiological cortisol profile (standard cortisol profile) and the circulating daily cortisol profile that reached in adrenal insufficient (AI) patients treated with once-daily modified-release HC (flat cortisol profile) and treated with thrice-daily conventional immediate-release HC (steep cortisol profile). The 24 h spontaneous oscillation of the clock genes in synchronized C2C12 cells was used to align the timing for in vitro HC exposure (Bmal1 acrophase, midphase, and bathyphase) with the reference times of cortisol peaks in AI patients treated with IR-HC (8 a.m., 1 p.m., and 6 p.m.). A panel of 84 insulin sensitivity-related genes and intracellular insulin signaling proteins were analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. Results: The steep profile, characterized by a higher HC exposure during Bmal1bathyphase, produced significant downregulation in 21 insulin sensitivity-related genes including Insr, Irs1, Irs2, Pi3kca, and Adipor2, compared to the flat and standard profile. Reduced intracellular IRS1 Tyr608, AKT Ser473, AMPK Thr172, and ACC Ser79 phosphorylations were also observed. Conclusions: The current study demonstrated that late-in-the-day cortisol exposure modulates insulin sensitivity-related gene expression and intracellular insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells.

Cortisol circadian rhythm and insulin resistance in muscle: effect of dosing and timing of hydrocortisone exposure on insulin sensitivity in synchronized muscle cells / Negri, Mariarosaria; Pivonello, Claudia; Simeoli, Chiara; Di Gennaro, Gilda; Venneri, MARY ANNA; Sciarra, Francesca; Ferrigno, Rosario; de Angelis, Cristina; Sbardella, Emilia; Cristina De Martino, Maria; Colao, Annamaria; Isidori, Andrea M.; Pivonello, Rosario. - In: NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY. - ISSN 1423-0194. - (2020). [10.1159/000512685]

Cortisol circadian rhythm and insulin resistance in muscle: effect of dosing and timing of hydrocortisone exposure on insulin sensitivity in synchronized muscle cells

Claudia Pivonello;Mary Anna Venneri;Francesca Sciarra;Emilia Sbardella;Andrea M. Isidori;
2020

Abstract

Introduction/Aim: Circadian clock disruption is emerging as a risk factor for metabolic disorders, and particularly, alterations in clock genes circadian expression have been shown to influence insulin sensitivity. Recently, the reciprocal interplay between the circadian clock machinery and hypothal­amus-pituitary-adrenal axis has been largely demonstrated: the circadian clock may control the physiological circadian endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) secretion and action; GCs, in turn, are potent regulators of the circadian clock and their inappropriate replacement has been associated with metabolic impairment. The aim of the current study was to investigate in vitro the interaction between the timing-of-the-day exposure to different hydrocortisone (HC) concentrations and muscle insulin sensitivity. Methods: Serum-shock synchronized mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 cells were exposed to different HC concentrations resembling the circulating daily physiological cortisol profile (standard cortisol profile) and the circulating daily cortisol profile that reached in adrenal insufficient (AI) patients treated with once-daily modified-release HC (flat cortisol profile) and treated with thrice-daily conventional immediate-release HC (steep cortisol profile). The 24 h spontaneous oscillation of the clock genes in synchronized C2C12 cells was used to align the timing for in vitro HC exposure (Bmal1 acrophase, midphase, and bathyphase) with the reference times of cortisol peaks in AI patients treated with IR-HC (8 a.m., 1 p.m., and 6 p.m.). A panel of 84 insulin sensitivity-related genes and intracellular insulin signaling proteins were analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. Results: The steep profile, characterized by a higher HC exposure during Bmal1bathyphase, produced significant downregulation in 21 insulin sensitivity-related genes including Insr, Irs1, Irs2, Pi3kca, and Adipor2, compared to the flat and standard profile. Reduced intracellular IRS1 Tyr608, AKT Ser473, AMPK Thr172, and ACC Ser79 phosphorylations were also observed. Conclusions: The current study demonstrated that late-in-the-day cortisol exposure modulates insulin sensitivity-related gene expression and intracellular insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1555947
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