More than 70 years have passed since the first description of Klinefelter Syndrome (KS), the most frequent chromosome disorder causing male infertility and hypogonadism. KS is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality due to several comorbidities, including hypogonadism, as well as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, which are highly prevalent in these patients. Aside from metabolic disturbances, patients with KS suffer from both acquired and congenital CV abnormalities, cerebrovascular thromboembolic dis-ease, subclinical atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction, which may all contribute to increased CV mortali-ty. The mechanisms involved in this increased risk of CV morbidity and mortality are not entirely understood. More research is needed to better characterise the CV manifestations, elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms and define the contribution of testosterone replacement to restoring CV health in KS patients. This review explores the complex association between KS, metabolic syndrome and CV risk in order to plan future studies and improve strategies to reduce mortality in this high-risk population.

Cardiovascular complications in patients with Klinefelter’s syndrome / Sesti, F.; Pofi, R.; Pozza, C.; Minnetti, M.; Gianfrilli, D.; Kanakis, G. A.. - In: CURRENT PHARMACEUTICAL DESIGN. - ISSN 1381-6128. - 26:43(2020), pp. 5556-5563. [10.2174/1381612826666201102105408]

Cardiovascular complications in patients with Klinefelter’s syndrome

Sesti F.;Pofi R.;Pozza C.;Minnetti M.;Gianfrilli D.;
2020

Abstract

More than 70 years have passed since the first description of Klinefelter Syndrome (KS), the most frequent chromosome disorder causing male infertility and hypogonadism. KS is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality due to several comorbidities, including hypogonadism, as well as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, which are highly prevalent in these patients. Aside from metabolic disturbances, patients with KS suffer from both acquired and congenital CV abnormalities, cerebrovascular thromboembolic dis-ease, subclinical atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction, which may all contribute to increased CV mortali-ty. The mechanisms involved in this increased risk of CV morbidity and mortality are not entirely understood. More research is needed to better characterise the CV manifestations, elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms and define the contribution of testosterone replacement to restoring CV health in KS patients. This review explores the complex association between KS, metabolic syndrome and CV risk in order to plan future studies and improve strategies to reduce mortality in this high-risk population.
2020
cardiac abnormalities; cardiovascular diseases; cardiovascular risk; hypogonadism; Klinefelter syndrome; metabolic syndrome; thromboembolic disease
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
Cardiovascular complications in patients with Klinefelter’s syndrome / Sesti, F.; Pofi, R.; Pozza, C.; Minnetti, M.; Gianfrilli, D.; Kanakis, G. A.. - In: CURRENT PHARMACEUTICAL DESIGN. - ISSN 1381-6128. - 26:43(2020), pp. 5556-5563. [10.2174/1381612826666201102105408]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1555486
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