Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe but treatable mental disorder that develops after a life-threatening traumatic event. Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) hospitalisation is a potentially traumatic experience, especially in severe cases. Furthermore, the unprecedented context of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, with daily media bombardment about COVID-19 mortality, may have amplified life-threatening perception also in patients with moderate infection. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of PTSD at 3-month follow-up in patients hospitalised for COVID-19 infection. Design: In this cohort follow-up study conducted in a large Italian academic COVID-19 hospital, 115 recruited survivors were contacted by telephone 3 months after discharge to home care. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 was administered. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyse risk factors for the development of PTSD. Key Results: A total of 10.4% of the sample received a PCL-5-based diagnosis of PTSD. Other 8.6% of the sample received a diagnosis of subthreshold PTSD, which leads to significant levels of distress and impairment. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that previous psychiatric diagnosis (odds ratio (OR) = 6.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.7–78.6, p < 0.001) and obesity (OR = 3.51, 95% CI: 1.4–857.9, p = 0.03) were risk factors for developing PTSD. Chronic pulmonary diseases approached significance as a risk factor (OR = 6.03, 95% CI: 1.0–37.1, p = 0.053). Male sex was a protective factor (OR=0.04, 95% CI: 0.0–0.041, p = 0.007). Conclusions: PTSD and subthreshold PTSD rates in patients hospitalised for COVID-19 are worrying. Female sex and pre-existing mental disorders are established risk factors for PTSD, while the prospective association with obesity needs further investigation. Clinicians treating COVID-19 should consider screening for PTSD at follow-up assessments in patients discharged from the hospital.

Post-traumatic stress disorder among COVID-19 survivors at 3-month follow-up after hospital discharge / Tarsitani, L.; Vassalini, P.; Koukopoulos, A.; Borrazzo, C.; Alessi, F.; Di Nicolantonio, C.; Serra, R.; Alessandri, F.; Ceccarelli, G.; Mastroianni, C. M.; d'Ettorre, G.. - In: JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 0884-8734. - 36:6(2021), pp. 1702-1707. [10.1007/s11606-021-06731-7]

Post-traumatic stress disorder among COVID-19 survivors at 3-month follow-up after hospital discharge

Tarsitani L.
Co-primo
;
Vassalini P.
Co-primo
;
Koukopoulos A.;Borrazzo C.;Alessi F.;Di Nicolantonio C.;Serra R.;Alessandri F.;Ceccarelli G.;Mastroianni C. M.
Penultimo
;
d'Ettorre G.
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe but treatable mental disorder that develops after a life-threatening traumatic event. Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) hospitalisation is a potentially traumatic experience, especially in severe cases. Furthermore, the unprecedented context of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, with daily media bombardment about COVID-19 mortality, may have amplified life-threatening perception also in patients with moderate infection. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of PTSD at 3-month follow-up in patients hospitalised for COVID-19 infection. Design: In this cohort follow-up study conducted in a large Italian academic COVID-19 hospital, 115 recruited survivors were contacted by telephone 3 months after discharge to home care. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 was administered. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyse risk factors for the development of PTSD. Key Results: A total of 10.4% of the sample received a PCL-5-based diagnosis of PTSD. Other 8.6% of the sample received a diagnosis of subthreshold PTSD, which leads to significant levels of distress and impairment. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that previous psychiatric diagnosis (odds ratio (OR) = 6.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.7–78.6, p < 0.001) and obesity (OR = 3.51, 95% CI: 1.4–857.9, p = 0.03) were risk factors for developing PTSD. Chronic pulmonary diseases approached significance as a risk factor (OR = 6.03, 95% CI: 1.0–37.1, p = 0.053). Male sex was a protective factor (OR=0.04, 95% CI: 0.0–0.041, p = 0.007). Conclusions: PTSD and subthreshold PTSD rates in patients hospitalised for COVID-19 are worrying. Female sex and pre-existing mental disorders are established risk factors for PTSD, while the prospective association with obesity needs further investigation. Clinicians treating COVID-19 should consider screening for PTSD at follow-up assessments in patients discharged from the hospital.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/1552060
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