Theiler’s virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS) induces an immune-mediated demyelinating disease in susceptible mouse strains and serves as a relevant infection model for human multiple sclerosis (MS). Cannabinoids have been shown to exert beneficial effects on animal models of MS and evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system plays a role in the tonic control of spasticity. In this study we show that OMDM1 [(R)-N-oleoyl-(1¢-hydroxybenzyl)-2¢-ethanolamine] and OMDM2 [(S)-N-oleoyl-(1¢-hydroxybenzyl)-2¢- ethanolamine], two selective inhibitors of the putative endocannabinoid transporter and hence of endocannabinoid inactivation, provide an effective therapy for Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD). Treatment of TMEV-infected mice with OMDM1 and OMDM2 enhanced anandamide levels in the spinal cord and ameliorated motor symptoms. This was associated with a down-regulation of inflammatory responses in the spinal cord. In addition we show that OMDM1 and OMDM2 down-regulate macrophage function by (i) decreasing the surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, (ii) inhibiting nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2) expression and (iii) reducing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1b) and interleukin-12 (IL-12p40). Taken together, these results point to the manipulation of the endocannabinoid system as a possible strategy to develop futureMS therapeutic drugs.
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|Titolo:||Pharmacological modulation of the endocannabinoid system in a viral model of multiple sclerosis|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2005|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|