Early detection of prostate cancer (PC) is largely carried out using assessment of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level; yet it cannot reliably discriminate between benign pathologies and clinically significant forms of PC. To overcome the current limitations of PSA, new urinary and serum biomarkers have been developed in recent years. Although several biomarkers have been explored in various scenarios and patient settings, to date, specific guidelines with a high level of evidence on the use of these markers are lacking. Recent advances in metabolomic, genomics, and proteomics have made new potential biomarkers available. A number of studies focused on the characterization of the specific PC metabolic phenotype using different experimental approaches has been recently reported; yet, to date, research on metabolomic application for PC has focused on a small group of metabolites that have been known to be related to the prostate gland. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are secreted from all mammalian cells and virtually detected in all bio-fluids, thus allowing their use as tumor biomarkers. Thanks to a general improvement of the technical equipment to analyze exosomes, we are able to obtain reliable quantitative and qualitative information useful for clinical application. Although some pilot clinical investigations have proposed potential PC biomarkers, data are still preliminary and non-conclusive.

Biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis: from current knowledge to the role of metabolomics and exosomes / Salciccia, Stefano; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Laganà, Aldo; Fais, Stefano; Logozzi, Mariantonia; De Berardinis, Ettore; Busetto, Gian Maria; Di Pierro, Giovanni Battista; Ricciuti, Gian Piero; Del Giudice, Francesco; Sciarra, Alessandro; Carroll, Peter R.; Cooperberg, Matthew R.; Sciarra, Beatrice; Maggi, Martina. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 22:9(2021). [10.3390/ijms22094367]

Biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis: from current knowledge to the role of metabolomics and exosomes

Salciccia, Stefano;Capriotti, Anna Laura;Laganà, Aldo;De Berardinis, Ettore;Busetto, Gian Maria;Di Pierro, Giovanni Battista;Ricciuti, Gian Piero;Del Giudice, Francesco;Sciarra, Alessandro
;
Maggi, Martina
2021

Abstract

Early detection of prostate cancer (PC) is largely carried out using assessment of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level; yet it cannot reliably discriminate between benign pathologies and clinically significant forms of PC. To overcome the current limitations of PSA, new urinary and serum biomarkers have been developed in recent years. Although several biomarkers have been explored in various scenarios and patient settings, to date, specific guidelines with a high level of evidence on the use of these markers are lacking. Recent advances in metabolomic, genomics, and proteomics have made new potential biomarkers available. A number of studies focused on the characterization of the specific PC metabolic phenotype using different experimental approaches has been recently reported; yet, to date, research on metabolomic application for PC has focused on a small group of metabolites that have been known to be related to the prostate gland. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are secreted from all mammalian cells and virtually detected in all bio-fluids, thus allowing their use as tumor biomarkers. Thanks to a general improvement of the technical equipment to analyze exosomes, we are able to obtain reliable quantitative and qualitative information useful for clinical application. Although some pilot clinical investigations have proposed potential PC biomarkers, data are still preliminary and non-conclusive.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1545149
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