Background: Neurofibromatosis Type I (NF1), also termed von Recklinghausen disease, is a rare genetic disorder that is transmitted by autosomal dominant inheritance, with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. It is caused by mutation in the NF1 gene on chromosome 17 encoding for neurofibromin, a protein with oncosuppressive activity, and it is 50% sporadic or inherited. The disease is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, mainly involving the nervous system, the eye and skin, and a predisposition to develop multiple benign and malignant neoplasms. Ocular diagnostic hallmarks of NF1 include optic gliomas, iris Lisch nodules, orbital and eyelid neurofibromas, eyelid café-au-lait spots. Choroidal nodules and microvascular abnormalities have recently been identified as additional NF1-related ocular manifestations. The present study was designed to describe the features and clinical significance of a new sign related to the visual apparatus in NF-1, represented by hyperpigmented spots (HSs) of the fundus oculi. Results: HSs were detected in 60 (24.1%) out of 249 patients with NF1, with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 44.2%. None of the healthy subjects (150 subjects) showed the presence of HSs. HSs were visible under indirect ophthalmoscopy, ultra-wide field (UWF) pseudocolor imaging and red-only laser image, near-infrared reflectance (NIR)-OCT, but they were not appreciable on UWF green reflectance. The location and features of pigmentary lesions matched with the already studied NF1-related choroidal nodules. No significant difference was found between the group of patients (n = 60) with ocular HSs and the group of patients (n = 189) without ocular pigmented spots in terms of age, gender or severity grading of the disease. A statistically significant association was demonstrated between the presence of HSs and neurofibromas (p = 0.047), and between the presence of HSs and NF1-related retinal microvascular abnormalities (p = 0.017). Conclusions: We described a new ocular sign represented by HSs of the fundus in NF1. The presence of HSs was not a negative prognostic factor of the disease. Following multimodal imaging, we demonstrated that HSs and choroidal nodules were consistent with the same type of lesion, and simple indirect ophthalmoscopy allowed for screening of HSs in NF1.

Hyperpigmented spots at fundus examination: a new ocular sign in neurofibromatosis type I / Moramarco, A.; Mallone, F.; Sacchetti, M.; Lucchino, L.; Miraglia, E.; Roberti, V.; Lambiase, A.; Giustini, S.. - In: ORPHANET JOURNAL OF RARE DISEASES. - ISSN 1750-1172. - 16:1(2021).

Hyperpigmented spots at fundus examination: a new ocular sign in neurofibromatosis type I

Moramarco A.
Primo
;
Mallone F.
Secondo
;
Sacchetti M.;Lucchino L.;Miraglia E.;Roberti V.;Lambiase A.
Penultimo
;
Giustini S.
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Background: Neurofibromatosis Type I (NF1), also termed von Recklinghausen disease, is a rare genetic disorder that is transmitted by autosomal dominant inheritance, with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. It is caused by mutation in the NF1 gene on chromosome 17 encoding for neurofibromin, a protein with oncosuppressive activity, and it is 50% sporadic or inherited. The disease is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, mainly involving the nervous system, the eye and skin, and a predisposition to develop multiple benign and malignant neoplasms. Ocular diagnostic hallmarks of NF1 include optic gliomas, iris Lisch nodules, orbital and eyelid neurofibromas, eyelid café-au-lait spots. Choroidal nodules and microvascular abnormalities have recently been identified as additional NF1-related ocular manifestations. The present study was designed to describe the features and clinical significance of a new sign related to the visual apparatus in NF-1, represented by hyperpigmented spots (HSs) of the fundus oculi. Results: HSs were detected in 60 (24.1%) out of 249 patients with NF1, with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 44.2%. None of the healthy subjects (150 subjects) showed the presence of HSs. HSs were visible under indirect ophthalmoscopy, ultra-wide field (UWF) pseudocolor imaging and red-only laser image, near-infrared reflectance (NIR)-OCT, but they were not appreciable on UWF green reflectance. The location and features of pigmentary lesions matched with the already studied NF1-related choroidal nodules. No significant difference was found between the group of patients (n = 60) with ocular HSs and the group of patients (n = 189) without ocular pigmented spots in terms of age, gender or severity grading of the disease. A statistically significant association was demonstrated between the presence of HSs and neurofibromas (p = 0.047), and between the presence of HSs and NF1-related retinal microvascular abnormalities (p = 0.017). Conclusions: We described a new ocular sign represented by HSs of the fundus in NF1. The presence of HSs was not a negative prognostic factor of the disease. Following multimodal imaging, we demonstrated that HSs and choroidal nodules were consistent with the same type of lesion, and simple indirect ophthalmoscopy allowed for screening of HSs in NF1.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/1533645
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