OBJECTIVE: To provide an updated systematic review of randomized control trials (RCTs) to investigate the clinical and microbiological efficacy of nitrofurantoin compared to other antibiotics or placebo for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTI). A secondary aim is to assess whether nitrofurantoin use is associated with increased side effects compared to other treatment regimens.SUMMARY: The review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. We searched 4 databases for articles published from database inception to May 6, 2020: (1) PubMed electronic database of the National Library of Medicine, (2) Web of Science, (3) Embase, and (4) Cochrane Library. Nine RCTs were selected for the review. RCTs were a mixture of double-blind, single-blind, and open-label trials. The most common comparators were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fosfomycin tromethamine. Overall study quality was poor with a high risk of bias. The clinical cure rates in nitrofurantoin ranged from 51 to 94% depending on the length of follow-up, and bacteriological cure rates ranged from 61 to 92%. Overall the evidence suggests that nitrofurantoin is at least comparable with other uUTI treatments in terms of efficacy. Patients taking nitrofurantoin reported fewer side effects than other drugs and the most commonly reported were gastrointestinal and central nervous system symptoms. Key Messages: Evidence on the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of nitrofurantoin is sparse, with a lack of new data, and hampered by high risk of bias. Although no firm conclusions can be made on the current base of evidence, the studies generally suggest that nitrofurantoin is at least comparable to other common uUTI treatments in terms of clinical and bacteriological cure. More robust research with well-designed double-blinded RCTs is needed.

The clinical efficacy of nitrofurantoin for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults: a systematic review of randomized control trials / Porreca, Angelo; D'Agostino, Daniele; Romagnoli, Daniele; Del Giudice, Francesco; Maggi, Martina; Palmer, Katie; Falabella, Roberto; De Berardinis, Ettore; Sciarra, Alessandro; Ferro, Matteo; Artibani, Walter; Mirone, Vincenzo; Busetto, Gian Maria. - In: UROLOGIA INTERNATIONALIS. - ISSN 0042-1138. - (2021), pp. 1-10. [10.1159/000512582]

The clinical efficacy of nitrofurantoin for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults: a systematic review of randomized control trials

Del Giudice, Francesco;Maggi, Martina;De Berardinis, Ettore;Sciarra, Alessandro;Busetto, Gian Maria
2021

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To provide an updated systematic review of randomized control trials (RCTs) to investigate the clinical and microbiological efficacy of nitrofurantoin compared to other antibiotics or placebo for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTI). A secondary aim is to assess whether nitrofurantoin use is associated with increased side effects compared to other treatment regimens.SUMMARY: The review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. We searched 4 databases for articles published from database inception to May 6, 2020: (1) PubMed electronic database of the National Library of Medicine, (2) Web of Science, (3) Embase, and (4) Cochrane Library. Nine RCTs were selected for the review. RCTs were a mixture of double-blind, single-blind, and open-label trials. The most common comparators were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fosfomycin tromethamine. Overall study quality was poor with a high risk of bias. The clinical cure rates in nitrofurantoin ranged from 51 to 94% depending on the length of follow-up, and bacteriological cure rates ranged from 61 to 92%. Overall the evidence suggests that nitrofurantoin is at least comparable with other uUTI treatments in terms of efficacy. Patients taking nitrofurantoin reported fewer side effects than other drugs and the most commonly reported were gastrointestinal and central nervous system symptoms. Key Messages: Evidence on the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of nitrofurantoin is sparse, with a lack of new data, and hampered by high risk of bias. Although no firm conclusions can be made on the current base of evidence, the studies generally suggest that nitrofurantoin is at least comparable to other common uUTI treatments in terms of clinical and bacteriological cure. More robust research with well-designed double-blinded RCTs is needed.
File allegati a questo prodotto
File Dimensione Formato  
Porreca_Clinical-efficacy_2021.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione editoriale (versione pubblicata con il layout dell'editore)
Licenza: Tutti i diritti riservati (All rights reserved)
Dimensione 327.53 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
327.53 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri PDF

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1489844
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact