Abstract Background: Balneotherapy has been considered beneficial in patients with chronic venous disease due to patientreported positive outcomes on improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Study aim: Assessing the effects of prolonged water immersion (WI) on leg edema and epifascial thickness and to compare these data with those achieved after continuous walking on ground. Material and methods: On three consecutive days, 14 otherwise healthy volunteers (9 females, 5 males, mean age 53 10 years) affected by occupational edema (OE), defined as the edema developing during the time period of the working day and disappearing overnight, stayed standing immobile in a swimming pool for 30 minutes (30’), continuously walking again for 30’ in the same pool and walking on ground for 30’ without interruptions in a randomized sequence. Leg volume, ankle circumference and epifascial thickness of both legs were assessed each day before and after each intervention. Results: Leg volume showed a median reduction by 4.20% (IQR 5-3.6) (p ¼ 0.0002) after 30’ of immobile standing immersion and by 6.50% (IQR 7.30-5.61) (P < 0.0001) when the patients walked in the pool. Ankle circumference showed a median reduction by 2.89% (IQR 4.23-2.03) (p ¼ 0.02) with the subjects staying standing still in water and by 5.98% (IQR 7.47-4.14) (p ¼ 0.0002) after 30’ walking in the pool. Epifascial thickness showed a median reduction by 24.35% (IQR 35.26-22.5) (P < 0.0001) when the volunteers remained standing still and by 32.66% (IQR 36.91-28-84) (P < 0.0001), when walking in water. Leg volumetry showed a median reduction by 0.20% (IQR-0.44-0.29) (p ¼ 0.375) after walking on ground for 30’. Ankle circumference and epifascial thickness did not show any difference walking on ground compared to baseline situation. Conclusions: This study showed that 30’ of WI, especially when associated with walking, reduced leg volume in otherwise heathy subjects with OE and that walking outside the water did not

The effects of water immersion and walking on leg volume, ankle circumference and epifascial thickness in healthy subjects with occupational edema / Mosti, Giovanni; Caggiati, Alberto. - In: PHLEBOLOGY. - ISSN 0268-3555. - 36:6(2021), pp. 473-480. [10.1177/0268355520984065]

The effects of water immersion and walking on leg volume, ankle circumference and epifascial thickness in healthy subjects with occupational edema

Alberto Caggiati
Conceptualization
2021

Abstract

Abstract Background: Balneotherapy has been considered beneficial in patients with chronic venous disease due to patientreported positive outcomes on improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Study aim: Assessing the effects of prolonged water immersion (WI) on leg edema and epifascial thickness and to compare these data with those achieved after continuous walking on ground. Material and methods: On three consecutive days, 14 otherwise healthy volunteers (9 females, 5 males, mean age 53 10 years) affected by occupational edema (OE), defined as the edema developing during the time period of the working day and disappearing overnight, stayed standing immobile in a swimming pool for 30 minutes (30’), continuously walking again for 30’ in the same pool and walking on ground for 30’ without interruptions in a randomized sequence. Leg volume, ankle circumference and epifascial thickness of both legs were assessed each day before and after each intervention. Results: Leg volume showed a median reduction by 4.20% (IQR 5-3.6) (p ¼ 0.0002) after 30’ of immobile standing immersion and by 6.50% (IQR 7.30-5.61) (P < 0.0001) when the patients walked in the pool. Ankle circumference showed a median reduction by 2.89% (IQR 4.23-2.03) (p ¼ 0.02) with the subjects staying standing still in water and by 5.98% (IQR 7.47-4.14) (p ¼ 0.0002) after 30’ walking in the pool. Epifascial thickness showed a median reduction by 24.35% (IQR 35.26-22.5) (P < 0.0001) when the volunteers remained standing still and by 32.66% (IQR 36.91-28-84) (P < 0.0001), when walking in water. Leg volumetry showed a median reduction by 0.20% (IQR-0.44-0.29) (p ¼ 0.375) after walking on ground for 30’. Ankle circumference and epifascial thickness did not show any difference walking on ground compared to baseline situation. Conclusions: This study showed that 30’ of WI, especially when associated with walking, reduced leg volume in otherwise heathy subjects with OE and that walking outside the water did not
2021
balneotherapy; occupational edema; volumetry; duplex sonography
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
The effects of water immersion and walking on leg volume, ankle circumference and epifascial thickness in healthy subjects with occupational edema / Mosti, Giovanni; Caggiati, Alberto. - In: PHLEBOLOGY. - ISSN 0268-3555. - 36:6(2021), pp. 473-480. [10.1177/0268355520984065]
File allegati a questo prodotto
File Dimensione Formato  
Mosti_Effects_2021.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Documento in Post-print (versione successiva alla peer review e accettata per la pubblicazione)
Licenza: Tutti i diritti riservati (All rights reserved)
Dimensione 472.52 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
472.52 kB Adobe PDF

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1477677
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 10
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 8
social impact