Background People living with HIV (PLWH) are prone to develop sub-clinical Cardiovascular (CV) disease, despite the effectiveness of combined Antiretroviral Therapy (cART). Algorithms developed to predict CV risk in the general population could be inaccurate when applied to PLWH. Myocardial Extra-Cellular Matrix (ECM) expansion, measured by computed tomography, has been associated with an increased CV vulnerability in HIV-negative population. Measurement of Myocardial Extra-Cellular Volume (ECV) by computed tomography or magnetic resonance, is considered a useful surrogate for clinical evaluation of ECM expansion. In the present study, we aimed to determine the extent of cardiovascular involvement in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients with the use of a comprehensive cardiac computed tomography (CCT) approach. Materials and methods In the present study, ECV in low atherosclerotic CV risk PLWH was compared with ECV of age and gender matched HIV- individuals. 53 asymptomatic HIV + individuals (45 males, age 48 (42.5–48) years) on effective cART (CD4 + cell count: 450 cells/µL (IQR: 328–750); plasma HIV RNA: <37 copies/ml in all subjects) and 18 age and gender matched controls (14 males, age 55 (44.5–56) years) were retrospectively enrolled. All participants underwent CCT protocol to obtain native and postcontrast Hounsfield unit values of blood and myocardium, ECM was calculated accordingly. Results The ECV was significantly higher in HIV + patients than in the control group (ECV: 31% (IQR: 28%-31%) vs. 27.4% (IQR: 25%-28%), p < 0.001). The duration of cART (standardized β = 0.56 (0.33–0.95), p = 0.014) and the years of exposure to HIV infection (standardized β = 0.53 (0.4–0.92), p < 0.001), were positively and strongly associated with ECV values. Differences in ECV (p < 0.001) were also observed regarding the duration of cART exposure (< 5 years, 5–10 years and > 10 years). Moreover, ECV was independently associated with age of participants (standardized β = 0.42 (0.33–0.89), p = 0.084). Conclusions HIV infection and exposure to antiretrovirals play a detrimental role on ECV expansion. An increase in ECV indicates ECM expansion, which has been associated to a higher CV risk in the general population. The non-invasive evaluation of ECM trough ECV could represent an important tool to further understand the relationship between HIV infection, cardiac pathophysiology and the increased CV risk observed in PLWH.

Unexpected increase of myocardial extracellular volume fraction in low cardiovascular risk HIV patients / Borrazzo, Cristian; D'Ettorre, Gabriella; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Pacilio, Massimiliano; Santinelli, Letizia; Cavallari, Eugenio Nelson; Spagnolello, Ornella; Silvestri, Valeria; Vassalini, Paolo; Scagnolari, Carolina; Francone, Marco; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Carbone, Iacopo. - In: TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE COMMUNICATIONS. - ISSN 2396-832X. - 5(2020).

Unexpected increase of myocardial extracellular volume fraction in low cardiovascular risk HIV patients

Cristian Borrazzo
Co-primo
;
Gabriella d’Ettorre
Co-primo
;
Giancarlo Ceccarelli
Co-primo
;
Letizia Santinelli;Eugenio Nelson Cavallari;Ornella Spagnolello;Paolo Vassalini;Carolina Scagnolari;Marco Francone;Claudio Maria Mastroianni
Penultimo
;
Iacopo Carbone
Ultimo
2020

Abstract

Background People living with HIV (PLWH) are prone to develop sub-clinical Cardiovascular (CV) disease, despite the effectiveness of combined Antiretroviral Therapy (cART). Algorithms developed to predict CV risk in the general population could be inaccurate when applied to PLWH. Myocardial Extra-Cellular Matrix (ECM) expansion, measured by computed tomography, has been associated with an increased CV vulnerability in HIV-negative population. Measurement of Myocardial Extra-Cellular Volume (ECV) by computed tomography or magnetic resonance, is considered a useful surrogate for clinical evaluation of ECM expansion. In the present study, we aimed to determine the extent of cardiovascular involvement in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients with the use of a comprehensive cardiac computed tomography (CCT) approach. Materials and methods In the present study, ECV in low atherosclerotic CV risk PLWH was compared with ECV of age and gender matched HIV- individuals. 53 asymptomatic HIV + individuals (45 males, age 48 (42.5–48) years) on effective cART (CD4 + cell count: 450 cells/µL (IQR: 328–750); plasma HIV RNA: <37 copies/ml in all subjects) and 18 age and gender matched controls (14 males, age 55 (44.5–56) years) were retrospectively enrolled. All participants underwent CCT protocol to obtain native and postcontrast Hounsfield unit values of blood and myocardium, ECM was calculated accordingly. Results The ECV was significantly higher in HIV + patients than in the control group (ECV: 31% (IQR: 28%-31%) vs. 27.4% (IQR: 25%-28%), p < 0.001). The duration of cART (standardized β = 0.56 (0.33–0.95), p = 0.014) and the years of exposure to HIV infection (standardized β = 0.53 (0.4–0.92), p < 0.001), were positively and strongly associated with ECV values. Differences in ECV (p < 0.001) were also observed regarding the duration of cART exposure (< 5 years, 5–10 years and > 10 years). Moreover, ECV was independently associated with age of participants (standardized β = 0.42 (0.33–0.89), p = 0.084). Conclusions HIV infection and exposure to antiretrovirals play a detrimental role on ECV expansion. An increase in ECV indicates ECM expansion, which has been associated to a higher CV risk in the general population. The non-invasive evaluation of ECM trough ECV could represent an important tool to further understand the relationship between HIV infection, cardiac pathophysiology and the increased CV risk observed in PLWH.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/1476895
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