The initiation of action potentials (APs) by membrane depolarization occurs after a brief vulnerability period, during which excitation can be abolished by the reversal of the stimulus polarity. This vulnerability period is determined by the time needed for gating of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC). We compared nerve excitation by ultra-short uni- and bipolar stimuli to define the time frame of bipolar cancellation and of AP initiation. Propagating APs in isolated frog sciatic nerve were elicited by cathodic pulses (200 ns–300 µs), followed by an anodic (canceling) pulse of the same duration after a 0–200-µs delay. We found that the earliest and the latest boundaries for opening the critical number of VGSC needed to initiate AP are, respectively, between 11 and 20 µs and between 100 and 200 µs after the onset of depolarization. Stronger depolarization accelerated AP initiation, apparently due to faster VGSC opening, but not beyond the 11-µs limit. Bipolar cancellation was augmented by reducing pulse duration, shortening the delay between pulses, decreasing the amplitude of the cathodic pulse, and increasing the amplitude of the anodic one. Some of these characteristics contrasted the bipolar cancellation of cell membrane electroporation (Pakhomov et al. in Bioelectrochemistry 122:123–133, 2018; Gianulis et al. in Bioelectrochemistry 119:10–19, 2017), suggesting different mechanisms. The ratio of nerve excitation thresholds for a unipolar cathodic pulse and a symmetrical bipolar pulse increased as a power function as the pulse duration decreased, in remarkable agreement with the predictions of SENN model of nerve excitation (Reilly and Diamant in Health Phys 83(3):356–365, 2002).

Cancellation of nerve excitation by the reversal of nanosecond stimulus polarity and its relevance to the gating time of sodium channels / Casciola, M.; Xiao, S.; Apollonio, F.; Paffi, A.; Liberti, M.; Muratori, C.; Pakhomov, A. G.. - In: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES. - ISSN 1420-682X. - 76:22(2019), pp. 4539-4550. [10.1007/s00018-019-03126-0]

Cancellation of nerve excitation by the reversal of nanosecond stimulus polarity and its relevance to the gating time of sodium channels

Apollonio F.;Paffi A.;Liberti M.;
2019

Abstract

The initiation of action potentials (APs) by membrane depolarization occurs after a brief vulnerability period, during which excitation can be abolished by the reversal of the stimulus polarity. This vulnerability period is determined by the time needed for gating of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC). We compared nerve excitation by ultra-short uni- and bipolar stimuli to define the time frame of bipolar cancellation and of AP initiation. Propagating APs in isolated frog sciatic nerve were elicited by cathodic pulses (200 ns–300 µs), followed by an anodic (canceling) pulse of the same duration after a 0–200-µs delay. We found that the earliest and the latest boundaries for opening the critical number of VGSC needed to initiate AP are, respectively, between 11 and 20 µs and between 100 and 200 µs after the onset of depolarization. Stronger depolarization accelerated AP initiation, apparently due to faster VGSC opening, but not beyond the 11-µs limit. Bipolar cancellation was augmented by reducing pulse duration, shortening the delay between pulses, decreasing the amplitude of the cathodic pulse, and increasing the amplitude of the anodic one. Some of these characteristics contrasted the bipolar cancellation of cell membrane electroporation (Pakhomov et al. in Bioelectrochemistry 122:123–133, 2018; Gianulis et al. in Bioelectrochemistry 119:10–19, 2017), suggesting different mechanisms. The ratio of nerve excitation thresholds for a unipolar cathodic pulse and a symmetrical bipolar pulse increased as a power function as the pulse duration decreased, in remarkable agreement with the predictions of SENN model of nerve excitation (Reilly and Diamant in Health Phys 83(3):356–365, 2002).
2019
electropermeabilization; electroporation; gating; nanosecond pulses; nsEP; sodium channels; action potentials; animals; anura; cell membrane
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Cancellation of nerve excitation by the reversal of nanosecond stimulus polarity and its relevance to the gating time of sodium channels / Casciola, M.; Xiao, S.; Apollonio, F.; Paffi, A.; Liberti, M.; Muratori, C.; Pakhomov, A. G.. - In: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES. - ISSN 1420-682X. - 76:22(2019), pp. 4539-4550. [10.1007/s00018-019-03126-0]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1412008
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