The maintenance of chromosome ends in Drosophila is an exceptional phenomenon because it relies on the transposition of specialized retrotransposons rather than on the activity of the enzyme telomerase that maintains telomeres in almost every other eukaryotic species. Sequential transpositions of Het-A, TART, and TAHRE (HTT) onto chromosome ends produce long head-to-tail arrays that are reminiscent to the long arrays of short repeats produced by telomerase in other organisms. Coordinating the activation and silencing of the HTT array with the recruitment of telomere capping proteins favors proper telomere function. However, how this coordination is achieved is not well understood. Like other Drosophila retrotransposons, telomeric elements are regulated by the piRNA pathway. Remarkably, HTT arrays are both source of piRNA and targets of gene silencing thus making the regulation of Drosophila telomeric transposons a unique event among eukaryotes. Herein we will review the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of HTT transcription and transposition and will discuss the possibility of a crosstalk between piRNA mediated regulation, telomeric chromatin establishment and telomere protection.

Silence at the End: How Drosophila Regulates Expression and Transposition of Telomeric Retroelements / Cacchione, Stefano; Cenci, Giovanni; Raffa, Grazia Daniela. - In: JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. - ISSN 0022-2836. - 432:15(2020), pp. 4305-4321. [10.1016/j.jmb.2020.06.004]

Silence at the End: How Drosophila Regulates Expression and Transposition of Telomeric Retroelements

Cacchione, Stefano
;
Cenci, Giovanni
;
Raffa, Grazia Daniela
2020

Abstract

The maintenance of chromosome ends in Drosophila is an exceptional phenomenon because it relies on the transposition of specialized retrotransposons rather than on the activity of the enzyme telomerase that maintains telomeres in almost every other eukaryotic species. Sequential transpositions of Het-A, TART, and TAHRE (HTT) onto chromosome ends produce long head-to-tail arrays that are reminiscent to the long arrays of short repeats produced by telomerase in other organisms. Coordinating the activation and silencing of the HTT array with the recruitment of telomere capping proteins favors proper telomere function. However, how this coordination is achieved is not well understood. Like other Drosophila retrotransposons, telomeric elements are regulated by the piRNA pathway. Remarkably, HTT arrays are both source of piRNA and targets of gene silencing thus making the regulation of Drosophila telomeric transposons a unique event among eukaryotes. Herein we will review the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of HTT transcription and transposition and will discuss the possibility of a crosstalk between piRNA mediated regulation, telomeric chromatin establishment and telomere protection.
2020
telomere capping; retrotransposons; piRNAs; terminin; Het
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Silence at the End: How Drosophila Regulates Expression and Transposition of Telomeric Retroelements / Cacchione, Stefano; Cenci, Giovanni; Raffa, Grazia Daniela. - In: JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. - ISSN 0022-2836. - 432:15(2020), pp. 4305-4321. [10.1016/j.jmb.2020.06.004]
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Note: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2020.06.004
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1409272
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